November 19, 2013 (El Capitan Theatre)
Frozen is a stupid japanese show for babies.
This stupid show aired on the year 6666.
This show has murdered so many kids!!!
DON'T WATCH THIS SHOW!
WATCH FOR YOUR CHILD'S SAFETY (If you're a parent)
Elsa, princess of Arendelle, is known to have powers that create ice and snow. One night, she accidentally injures her sister Anna while they were playing in the throne room of the castle by using her powers. Their parents, King Agnarr and Queen Iduna of Arendelle, seek help from a group of trolls living in the Valley of the Living Rock, which their leader Pabbie tells them that it would have been worse if Elsa's powers had hit Anna's heart, as it actually hit her head. To try and keep both sisters together, Pabbie removes Anna's memories of Elsa's magic, but the king and queen still want to keep Elsa away from Anna by having her stay in her room most of the time until she learns how to control her powers. However, Anna is saddened with being shut out by Elsa when she tries to reconnect. Ten years later, the king and queen go on vacation, but drown when a storm causes their ship to sink.
Elsa still has not learnt how to control her abilities when three more years has passed, and the citizens are preparing for her coronation. Anna is more excited, because the castle gates would be opened. While she spends time outside of the castle, she runs into Hans, who is a prince of the Southern Isles. Elsa is crowned as queen of Arendelle, managing to prevent revealing her powers to everyone attending. A ball is held in the castle, to which Anna and Elsa are able to finally make a conversation after so many years. Dignitaries from around Europe have also arrived, along with the Duke of Weselton, whose kingdom trades goods with Arendelle. Anna comes across Hans once again, and they share each other's information about their life, which Hans states that three of his twelve brothers pretended that he did not exist. He later proposes to Anna, to which she accepts.
However, when they ask Elsa for her blessing, she refuses on the fact that Anna would get engaged to someone that she met on the same day. To make matters worse, Anna is shocked when Elsa orders the guards to end the ball and close the gates, and pushes Elsa to the point where she accidentally reveals her powers to everyone in the room. Shocked at this, Elsa flees Arendelle, not knowing that she had started a winter. Feeling that it is her own fault, Anna goes on a quest to find her sister, while Hans is left in charge of Arendelle. During the journey, she finds a shop owned by Oaken, who has one winter outfit left in stock. Just as Anna is about to buy the outfit, a ice harvester named Kristoff arrives, coming to get some items from the store, although he cannot afford it all. He later gets kicked out of the store by Oaken for calling him a crook.
Having heard that Kristoff had traveled to the store from the North Mountain, Anna believes that Elsa must have ran off to the same place, and also gets Kristoff's supplies so to convince him to take her to the North Mountain on his sled run by his reindeer Sven. However, they get attacked by wolves, and lose the sled in the process, having to continue by foot. Along the way, they meet a talking snowman named Olaf, who was originally made by Anna and Elsa in their childhood years. He was later made by Elsa while she was at the North Mountain, which she is unaware that she had brought him to life. Olaf agrees to guide Anna, Kristoff and Sven to Elsa, finding an ice palace built on the North Mountain. Anna is able to meet up with Elsa, who is happy to see her, but tries to get Anna to leave. Figuring out that Elsa does not know about the winter being set off, she manages to tell her, and tries to get her to come back to Arendelle and bring back summer. However, Elsa refuses when she tries to keep away and not hurt Anna, and loses control of her powers, which hit Anna in the heart. Still trying to get Anna to leave, Elsa creates a giant snow-monster, referred to by Olaf as Marshmallow, and gets him to chase Anna, Kristoff, Olaf and Sven away from the palace.
Noticing that Anna's hair is turning white due to being struck by Elsa, Kristoff decides to take the gang to the Valley of the Living Rock to find the trolls, who had adopted him and Sven back in their childhood. Along the way, Anna and Kristoff begin to develop feelings for each other. The trolls are happy to see Kristoff back, and get interested when they see Anna, thinking that she is perfect for Kristoff, but the two try to convince them that there is not any romance between them, especially that Anna is already engaged to someone else. As the trolls arrange a wedding for the two, Anna becomes more affected by the curse, which is the moment when Pabbie arrives, having sensed something strange, and informs them that Anna's heart has ice in it, and can only be cured if she does an act of true love. Believing that true love's kiss may count, the gang head back to Arendelle to take Anna to Hans.
Meanwhile, Hans has arrived at Elsa's palace with some of the castle guards and the Duke's bodyguards after thinking that Anna is in danger. While Hans and the castle guards fight against Marshmallow, the Duke's bodyguards head into the palace to chase Elsa, who then uses her powers to try and kill them. As soon as Hans and the castle guards arrive after they won the fight with Marshmallow, Elsa stops when Hans tells her to not become a monster that the Duke believes she is. When one of the bodyguards prepares to shoot an arrow at Elsa, Hans turns it toward the chandelier, to which Elsa manages to run out of the spot where it smashes, but becomes unconscious and gets taken to Arendelle's dungeon.
Kristoff later arrives in Arendelle with Anna, who then gets taken into the castle to Hans by the servants. Feeling saddened now that he has feelings for Anna, Kristoff leaves with Sven. Anna is able to be taken to Hans, and explains to him that he needs to kiss her, but he instead reveals that he had been planning to marry Anna so that he could rule Arendelle, when he was unable to wait to be crowned in his own kingdom as being the youngest of his family. The next part of his plan is to kill Elsa and get summer back, to which he leaves Anna locked in the library, and lies to the Duke and dignitaries, who went to a different room, that Anna is already dead. He also mentions that they got married just before Anna's supposed death, which would make him ruler of Arendelle. However, when he gives an order to sentence Elsa to death, Elsa manages to escape onto the fjord just as the guards arrive.
Olaf, who went a different way through Arendelle, comes into the library, and notices that Anna is still unwell. To make her warm, Olaf lights a fire in the fireplace, to which Anna gets concerned about Olaf melting from the heat. Thinking that she now does not know what love is, Olaf is able to explain to her about love, and uses Kristoff as a example of taking her back to Hans and then leaving, which reveals to Anna about Kristoff's feelings for her. Olaf then notices outside the window that Kristoff and Sven are coming back, having noticed that a blizzard is forming around Arendelle. Knowing that Kristoff could be the solution, Anna and Olaf head out onto the fjord to get to him. Meanwhile, Hans manages to get to Elsa, telling her that she will not be able to get away. At the moment that Elsa mentions her sister, Hans tells her about what happened to Anna, leaving Elsa upset when he tells her that she killed Anna. This causes Elsa to collapse and mourn her sister's death, also stopping the blizzard.
With the air looking clear, Anna and Kristoff quickly begin to come toward each other, but Anna then sees Hans about to kill Elsa, and runs toward them to try and save her sister's life. She appears in front of Hans just as he starts to swing his sword, putting her hand out before she then freezes into a statue, causing the sword to break and knock Hans unconscious. Elsa then notices what has happened, she mourns on the loss of her sister and starts crying. However, Anna is brought back to life, as saving Elsa is an act of true love. Learning that love would thaw, Elsa is able to thaw the snow and ice around Arendelle, having summer restored. In addition, she gives Olaf a flurry so that he does not melt, as he has been wanting to spend time in summer. To pay Hans back for his behavior, Anna punches him off the ship, before hugging Elsa, as well as returning Kristoff's feelings.
The French dignitary plans to send Hans back to the Southern Isles so to be punished by his brothers, while Elsa cuts off trades with Weselton. Kristoff is also given a new sled by Anna, as Elsa has titled him "Official Arendelle Ice Master and Deliverer". Saying that he loves the sled, Kristoff then mentions that he could kiss Anna, which causes him to get embarrassed and ask if they shall. In response to this, Anna kisses him on the cheek and agrees, to which they then kiss on the lips. Olaf is also enjoying summer, and is pleased to have Sven around. Elsa then creates an ice-skating rink in the castle for everyone to skate on, with Anna happy that the gates are open, to which Elsa plans to not close them again.
In a post-credits scene, Marshmallow is shown to have survived his fall during his battle with Hans and the castle guards, and comes across Elsa's crown in the palace. Putting it on, he feels glad to become ruler of the palace.
For non-English voice cast, click Frozen international voice cast.
|Santino Fontana||Hans||Main antagonist|
|Josh Gad||Olaf||Secondary tritagonist|
|Alan Tudyk||Duke||Secondary antagonist|
|Paul Briggs||Marshmallow||Tertiary antagonist|
|Ciarán Hinds||Grand Pabbie|
|Livvy Stubenrauch||5-year-old Anna (speaking)|
|Katie Lopez||5-year-old Anna (singing)|
|Agatha Lee Monn||9-year-old Anna|
|Eva Bella||8-year-old Elsa|
|Spencer Lacey Ganus||12-year-old Elsa|
|Maurice LaMarche||The King|
|Jennifer Lee||The Queen|
|Stephen J. Anderson||Kai|
|Annie Lopez||Baby Troll|
|Jesse Corti||Spanish Dignitary|
|Jeffrey Marcus||German Dignitary|
|Tucker Gilmore||Irish Dignitary|
|Raymond S. Persi|
OriginsWalt Disney Productions first began exploring a possible live action/animation biography film of author and poet Hans Christian Andersen sometime in late 1937 before the December premiere of its film Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, the first feature-length hand-drawn animated film ever made. In March 1940, Walt Disney suggested a co-production to film producer Samuel Goldwyn, where Goldwyn's studio would shoot the live-action sequences of Andersen's life and Disney's studio would animate Andersen's fairy tales. The animated sequences would be based on some of Andersen's best known works, such as The Little Mermaid, The Little Match Girl, The Steadfast Tin Soldier, The Snow Queen, Thumbelina, The Ugly Duckling, The Red Shoes and The Emperor's New Clothes. However, the studio encountered difficulty with The Snow Queen, as it could not find a way to adapt and relate the Snow Queen character to modern audiences. Even as far back as the 1930s and 1940s, it was clear that the source material contained great cinematic possibilities, but the Snow Queen character proved to be too problematic. After the United States entered World War II, the studio began to focus on making wartime propaganda, which caused development on the Disney-Goldwyn project to grind to a halt in 1942. Goldwyn went on to produce his own live-action film version in 1952, entitled Hans Christian Andersen, with Danny Kaye as Andersen, Charles Vidor directing, Moss Hart writing, and Frank Loesser penning the songs. All of Andersen's fairy tales were, instead, told in song and ballet in live-action, like the rest of the film. It went on to receive six Academy Award nominations the following year. Back at Disney, The Snow Queen, along with other Andersen fairy tales (including The Little Mermaid), were shelved.
|"Hans Christian Andersen’s original version of The Snow Queen is a pretty dark tale and it doesn't translate easily into a film. For us the breakthrough came when we tried to give really human qualities to the Snow Queen. When we decided to make the Snow Queen Elsa and our protagonist Anna sisters, that gave a way to relate to the characters in a way that conveyed what each was going through and that would relate for today's audiences. This film has a lot of complicated characters and complicated relationships in it. There are times when Elsa does villainous things but because you understand where it comes from, from this desire to defend herself, you can always relate to her. 'Inspired by' means exactly that. There is snow and there is ice and there is a Queen, but other than that, we depart from it quite a bit. We do try to bring scope and the scale that you would expect but do it in a way that we can understand the characters and relate to them."|
—Producer Peter Del Vecho, on the difficulties adapting The Snow Queen
In the late 1990s, Walt Disney Feature Animation started developing a new adaptation of The Snow Queen after the tremendous success of their recent films during the Disney Renaissance era, but the project was scrapped completely in late 2002, when Glen Keane reportedly quit the project and went on to work on another project which became Tangled (2010). Even before then, Harvey Fierstein pitched his version of the story to the Disney executives, but was turned down. Paul and Gaëtan Brizzi, Dick Zondag and Dave Goetz reportedly all had their try on it, but failed. After a number of unsuccessful attempts from 2000 to 2002, Disney shelved the project again. During one of those attempts, Michael Eisner, then-chairman and chief executive officer of The Walt Disney Company, offered his support to the project and suggested doing it with Oscar-winning director John Lasseter at Pixar Animation Studios after the then-expected renewal of Pixar's contract with Disney. But negotiations between Pixar and Disney collapsed in January 2004 and that contract was never renewed. Instead, Eisner's successor Bob Iger negotiated Disney's purchase of Pixar in January 2006 for $7.4 billion, and Lasseter was promoted to chief creative officer of both Pixar and Disney Animation.
The next attempt started in 2008 when Lasseter was able to convince Chris Buck (who had co-directed Tarzan (1999) for the studio) to return to Disney Animation from Sony Pictures Animation (where he had recently co-directed the Oscar-nominated Surf's Up), and that September, Buck pitched several ideas to Lasseter, one of which was The Snow Queen, after Chris Buck pitched several ideas to Lasseter (who by then had also become Chief Creative Officer of Disney Animation), one of which was The Snow Queen. Buck later revealed that his initial inspiration for The Snow Queen was not the Andersen fairy tale itself, but that he wanted "to do something different on the definition of true love." "Disney had already done the 'kissed by a prince' thing, so [I] thought it was time for something new," he recalled. It turned out Lasseter had been interested in The Snow Queen for a long time; back when Pixar was working with Disney on Toy Story in the 1990s, he saw and was "blown away" by some of the preproduction art from Disney's prior attempts. Development began under the title Anna and the Snow Queen, which was planned to be traditionally animated. According to Josh Gad, he first became involved with the film at that early stage, when the plot was still relatively close to the original Andersen fairy tale and Megan Mullally was going to play Elsa. By early 2010, the project entered development hell once again, when the studio failed to find a way to make the story and the Snow Queen character work.
On December 22, 2011, following the success of Tangled, Disney announced a new title for the film, Frozen, and a release date of November 27, 2013. A month later, it was confirmed that the film would be a computer-animated feature in stereoscopic 3D, instead of the originally intended hand-drawn animation. Anderson-Lopez and Lopez joined the project and started writing songs for Frozen in January 2012.
On March 5, 2012, it was announced that Buck would be directing, with Lasseter and Peter Del Vecho producing.
After Disney decided to advance The Snow Queen into development again, one of the main challenges Buck and Del Vecho faced was the character of the Snow Queen, who was then a villain in their drafts. The studio has a tradition of screening animated films in development every twelve weeks, then holding lengthy "notes sessions" in which its directors and screenwriters from different projects provide extensive "notes" on each other's work.
Buck and Del Vecho presented their storyboards to Lasseter, and the entire production team adjourned to a conference to hear Lasseter's thoughts on the project. Art director Michael Giaimo later acknowledged Lasseter as the "game changer" of the film: "I remember John saying that the latest version of The Snow Queen story that Chris Buck and his team had come up with was fun, very light-hearted. But the characters didn't resonate. They aren't multi-faceted. Which is why John felt that audiences wouldn't really be able to connect with them."
The production team then addressed the film's problems, drafting several different variations on The Snow Queen story until the characters and story felt relevant. At that stage, the first major breakthrough was the decision to rewrite the film's protagonist Anna (who was based on the Gerda character from The Snow Queen), as the younger sibling of Elsa, thereby effectively establishing a family dynamic between the characters. This was unusual in that relationships between sisters are rarely used as a major plot element in American animated films, with the notable exception of Disney's Lilo & Stitch (2002). To fully explore the unique dynamics of the kind of relationships, Disney Animation convened a "Sister Summit," at which women from all over Disney Animation who grew up with sisters were asked to discuss their relationships with their sisters.
In March 2012, Jennifer Lee, one of two screenplay writers of Wreck-It Ralph, was brought in as one of the film's writers. Lee later explained that as Wreck-It Ralph was wrapping up, she was giving notes on other projects, and "we kind of really connected with what we were thinking."
According to Lee, several core concepts were already in place from Buck and Del Vecho's early work, such as the film's "frozen heart" hook: "That was a concept and the phrase ... an act of true love will thaw a frozen heart." They already knew the ending involved true love in the sense of the emotional bond between siblings, not romance, in that "Anna was going to save Elsa. We didn’t know how or why." Lee said Edwin Catmull, president of Disney Animation, told her early on about the film's ending: "First and foremost, no matter what you have to do to the story, do it. But you have to earn that ending. If you do[,] it will be great. If you don't, it will suck."
Before Lee was brought on board, another screenwriter had made a first pass at a script, and Anderson-Lopez and Lopez tried to write songs for that script but none worked and all were cut. Then "the whole script imploded," which gave the songwriters the opportunity "to put a lot of [their] DNA" into the new script that Lee was writing. The production team "essentially started over and ... had 17 months," which resulted in a very "intense schedule" and implied "a lot of choices had to be made fast."
The earlier versions differed sharply from the final version. In the original script the songwriters first saw, Elsa was evil from the start; she kidnapped Anna from her own wedding to intentionally freeze her heart, then later descended upon the town with an army of snowmen with the objective of recapturing Anna to freeze her heart properly. By the time Lee came in, the first act included Elsa deliberately striking Anna in the heart with her freezing powers; then "the whole second act was about Anna trying to get to Hans and to kiss him and then Elsa trying to stop her." Buck revealed that the original plot attempted to make Anna sympathetic by focusing on her frustration as being perceived as the "spare" in relation to the "heir," Elsa. The original plot also had different pacing, in that it was "much more of an action adventure" than a musical or a comedy.
One major breakthrough was the composition of the song "Let It Go" by songwriters Lopez and Anderson-Lopez, which forced the production team to reconceptualize and rewrite Elsa as a far more complex, vulnerable, and sympathetic character. In The Daily Telegraph's words, instead of the villain envisioned by the producers, the songwriters saw Elsa as "a scared girl struggling to control and come to terms with her gift." Lee recalled: "Bobby and Kristen said they were walking in Prospect Park and they just started talking about what would it feel like [to be Elsa]. Forget villain. Just what it would feel like. And this concept of letting out who she is[,] that she's kept to herself for so long[,] and she's alone and free, but then the [sic] sadness of the fact that the last moment is she's alone. It’s not a perfect thing, but it's powerful." Del Vecho explained that "Let It Go" changed Elsa into a person "ruled by fear and Anna was ruled by her own love of other people and her own drive," which in turn caused Lee to "rewrite the first act and then that rippled through the entire movie. So that was when we really found the movie and who these characters were."
Another major breakthrough was developing the plot twist that Prince Hans would be revealed as the film's true villain only near the end. Hans was not even in the earliest drafts, then at first was not a villain, and after becoming one, was revealed to be evil much earlier in the plot. Del Vecho said, "We realized [what] was most important [was] if we were going to make the ending so surprising[,] you had to believe at one point that Hans was the answer ... [when] he's not the answer, it's Kristoff .... [I]f you can get the audience to leap ahead and think they have figured it out[,] you can surprise them by turning it the other way." Lee acknowledged that Hans was written as "sociopathic" and "twisted" throughout the final version. For example, Hans mirrors the behavior of the other characters: "He mirrors [Anna] and he's goofy with her ... [T]he Duke [of Weselton] is a jerk, so he's a jerk back. And with Elsa he's a hero." It was difficult to lay the foundation for Anna's belated turn to Kristoff without also making Hans' betrayal of Anna too predictable, in that the audience had to "feel ... her feeling something but not quite understanding it ... Because the minute it is [understood,] it deflated." At one point, Anna openly flirted with Kristoff upon first meeting him, but that was changed after studio chairman Alan F. Horn pointed out that it would confuse and annoy viewers since Anna was already engaged to Hans.
Lee had to work through the issue of how to write Anna's personality, in that some of her colleagues felt Anna should be more dysfunctional and co-dependent, like Vanellope von Schweetz in Wreck-It Ralph. Lee disagreed with that position, but it took her almost a year to figure out how to convincingly articulate "this is what Anna’s journey is. No more than that. No less than that." In the end, Lee successfully argued Anna's journey should be presented as a simple coming-of-age story, "where she goes from having a naive view of life and love—because she’s lonely—to the most sophisticated and mature view of love, where she’s capable of the ultimate love, which is sacrifice." Lee also had to let go of some ideas that she liked, such as a scene portraying Anna and Elsa's relationship as teenagers, which did not work because they needed to maintain the separation between Anna and Elsa.
To construct Anna and Elsa's relationship as sisters, Lee found inspiration in her own relationship with her older sister. Lee said her older sister was "a big inspiration for Elsa", called her "my Elsa" in an op-ed in the Los Angeles Times, and walked the red carpet with her at the 86th Academy Awards. Lee explained, "[h]aving to ... lose each other and then rediscover each other as adults, that was a big part of my life."
The production team also turned Olaf from Elsa's obnoxious sidekick into Anna's comically innocent sidekick. Lee's initial response to the original "mean" version of Olaf had been, "Kill the f-ing snowman", and she found Olaf by far "the hardest character to deal with."
The problem of how exactly Anna would save Elsa at the film's climax was solved by story artist John Ripa. At the story meeting where Ripa pitched his take on the story, the response was silence until Lasseter said, "I've never seen anything like that before," which was followed by a standing ovation.
Along the way, the production team went through drafts where the first act included far more detail than what ended up in the final version, such as a troll with a Brooklyn accent who would have explained the backstory behind Elsa's magical powers, and a regent for whom Lee was hoping to cast comedian Louis C.K. After all those details were thoroughly "over-analyzed", they were excised because they amounted to a "much more complex story than really we felt like we could fit in this 90-minute film." As Del Vecho put it, "the more we tried to explain things at the beginning, the more complicated it got."
Actress Kristen Bell was cast as the voice of Anna on March 5, 2012. Lee admitted that Bell's casting selection was influenced after the filmmakers listened to a series of vocal tracks Bell had recorded when she was young, where the actress performed several songs from The Little Mermaid, including "Part of Your World". Bell completed her recording sessions while she was pregnant, and subsequently re-recorded some of her character's lines after her pregnancy, as her voice had deepened. Bell was called in to re-record dialogue for the film "probably 20 times," which is normal for lead roles in Disney animated films whose scripts are still evolving. As for her approach to the role of Anna, Bell enthused that she had "dreamed of being in a Disney animated film" since she was four years old, saying, "I always loved Disney animation, but there was something about the females that was unattainable to me. Their posture was too good and they were too well-spoken, and I feel like I really made this girl much more relatable and weirder and scrappier and more excitable and awkward. I'm really proud of that."
|Frozen is "a bit of a feminist movie for Disney. I'm really proud of that. It has everything, but it's essentially about sisterhood. I think that these two women are competitive with one another, but always trying to protect each other – sisters are just so complicated. It's such a great relationship to have in movies, especially for young kids."|
—— Idina Menzel, on her impression of Frozen
On June 23, 2012, Idina Menzel, a Broadway veteran, was cast as Elsa. Menzel had formerly auditioned for Tangled, but didn't get the part. However, Tangled's casting director Jamie Sparer Robert preserved a recording of Menzel's performance on her iPhone, and on the basis of that, asked her to audition along with Bell for Frozen. Before they were officially cast, Menzel and Bell deeply impressed the directors at an early table read; after reading the entire script out loud, they sang "Wind Beneath My Wings" together as a duet, since no music had been composed yet. Bell had suggested that idea when she visited Menzel at her California home to prepare together for the table read. The songwriters were also present for the table read; Anderson-Lopez said "Lasseter was in heaven" upon hearing Menzel and Bell sing in harmony, and from that moment forward, he insisted, "Kristen Bell and Idina Menzel have to be in the movie!" Lee later said, "They sung it like sisters and what you mean to me[,] [a]nd there wasn't a dry eye in the house after they sang." Between December 2012 and June 2013, the casting of additional roles was announced, including Jonathan Groff as Kristoff, Alan Tudyk as the Duke of Weselton, Santino Fontana as Prince Hans, and Josh Gad as Olaf.
Following Lee's extensive involvement in Frozen's development process and her close work with director Buck and songwriters Lopez and Anderson-Lopez, studio heads Lasseter and Catmull promoted her to co-director of the film alongside Buck in August 2012. Her promotion was officially announced on November 29, 2012, making Lee the first woman to direct a full-length animated motion picture produced by Walt Disney Animation Studios. She primarily worked on story while Buck focused on animation. Lee later stated that she was "really moved by a lot of what Chris had done" and that they "shared a vision" of the story, having "very similar sensibilities".
By November 2012, the production team thought they had finally "cracked" the puzzle of how to make the film's story work, but according to Del Vecho, in late February 2013, it became clear that the film still "wasn't working", which necessitated further rewriting of scenes and songs from February through June 2013. He explained, "we rewrote songs, we took out characters and changed everything, and suddenly the movie gelled. But that was close. In hindsight, piece of cake, but during, it was a big struggle." Looking back, Anderson-Lopez joked she and Lopez thought at the time they could end up working as "birthday party clown[s]" if the final product "pull[ed] ... down" their careers and recalled that "we were really writing up until the last minute." In June (five months before the already-announced release date), the songwriters finally got the film working when they composed the song "For the First Time in Forever", which, in Lopez's words, "became the linchpin of the whole movie."
That month, Disney conducted test screenings of the half-completed film with two audiences (one made up of families and the other made up of adults) in Phoenix, Arizona, at which Lasseter and Catmull were personally present. Lee recalled that it was the moment when they realized they "had something, because the reaction was huge." Catmull, who had instructed Lee at the outset to "earn the ending," told her afterwards, "you did it".
AnimationSimilar to Tangled, Frozen employed a unique artistic style by blending features of both computer-generated imagery (CGI) and traditional hand-drawn animation together. From the beginning, Buck knew Giaimo was the best candidate to develop the style he had in mind, which would draw from the best Disney hand-drawn classics of the 1950s, the Disney Little Golden Books and mid-century modern design—and persuaded him to come back to Disney to serve as the art director for Frozen. Buck, Lasseter and Giaimo were all old friends who had first met at CalArts, and Giaimo had previously served as the art director for Disney's Pocahontas (1995), which Buck had worked on as a supervising animator.
To create the look of Frozen, Giaimo began pre-production research by reading extensively about the entire region of Scandinavia and visiting the Danish-themed city of Solvang near Los Angeles, but eventually zeroed in on Norway in particular because "80 percent" of the visuals that appealed to him were from Norway. Disney eventually sponsored three research field trips. Animators and special effects specialists were dispatched to Jackson Hole, Wyoming to experience walking, running, and falling in deep snow in a variety of types of attire, including long skirts (which both female and male personnel tried on); while lighting and arts teams visited an Ice Hotel in Quebec City, Quebec to study how light reflects and refracts on snow and ice. Finally, Giaimo and several artists traveled to Norway to draw inspiration from its mountains, fjords, architecture, and culture. "We had a very short time schedule for this film, so our main focus was really to get the story right but we knew that John Lasseter is keen on truth in the material and creating a believable world, and again that doesn't mean it's a realistic world – but a believable one. It was important to see the scope and scale of Norway, and important for our animators to know what it's like," Del Vecho said. "There is a real feeling of Lawrence of Arabia scope and scale to this," he finished.
During 2012, while Giaimo and the animators and artists conducted preparatory research and developed the film's overall look, the production team was still struggling to develop a compelling script, as explained above. That problem was not adequately solved until November 2012, and the script would later require even more significant revisions after that point. As a result, the single "most daunting" challenge facing the animation team was a short schedule of less than 12 months to turn Lee's still-evolving shooting script into an actual film. Of course, other films like Toy Story 2 had been successfully completed on even shorter schedules, but a short schedule necessarily meant "late nights, overtime, and stress." Lee estimated the total size of the entire team on Frozen to be around 600 to 650 people, "including around 70 lighting people[,] 70-plus animators," and 15 to 20 storyboard artists.
Del Vecho explained how the film's animation team was organized: "On this movie we do have character leads, supervising animators on specific characters. The animators themselves may work on multiple characters but it's always under one lead. I think it was different on Tangled, for example, but we chose to do it this way as we wanted one person to fully understand and develop their own character and then be able to impart that to the crew. Hyrum Osmond, the animator on Olaf, is quiet but he has a funny, wacky personality so we knew he'd bring a lot of comedy to it; Anna's animator, Becky Bresee, it's her first time leading a character and we wanted her to lead Anna." Acting coach Warner Loughlin was brought in to help the film's animators understand the characters they were creating. In order to get the general feeling of each scene, some animators did their own acting. "I actually film myself acting the scene out, which I find very helpful," said animation supervisor Rebecca Wilson Bresee. This helped her discover elements that made the scene feel real and believable. Elsa's supervising animator was Wayne Unten, who asked for that role because he was fascinated by the complexity of the character. Unten carefully developed Elsa's facial expressions in order to bring out her fear as contrasted against Anna's fearlessness. He also studied video from Menzel's recording sessions and animated Elsa's breathing to match Menzel's breathing.
Regarding the look and nature of the film's cinematograph, Giaimo was greatly influenced by Jack Cardiff's work in Black Narcissus. According to him, it lent a hyper-reality to the film: "Because this is a movie with such scale and we have the Norwegian fjords to draw from, I really wanted to explore the depth. From a design perspective, since I was stressing the horizontal and vertical aspects, and what the fjords provide, it was perfect. We encased the sibling story in scale." Ted D. McCord's work in The Sound of Music was another major influence for Giaimo. It was also Giaimo's idea that Frozen should be filmed in the CinemaScope aspect ratio, which was approved by Lasseter. Giaimo also wanted to ensure that Norway's fjords, architecture and rosemaling folk art, were critical factors in designing the environment of Arendelle. Giaimo, whose background is in traditional animation, said that the art design environment represents a unity of character and environment and that he originally wanted to incorporate saturated colors, which is typically ill-advised in computer animation. For further authenticity, a live reindeer was brought into the studio for animators to study its movements and mannerisms for the character Sven.
Another important issue Giaimo insisted on addressing was costumes, in that he "knew from the start" it would be a "costume film." To realize that vision, he brought in character designer Jean Gillmore to act as a dedicated "costume designer". While traditional animation simply integrates costume design with character design and treats clothing as merely part of the characters, computer-generated animation regards costume as almost a separate entity with its own properties and behaviors—and Frozen required a level of as-yet untried detail, down to minutia like fabrics, buttons, trim, and stitching. Gillmore explained that her "general approach was to meld the historic silhouettes of 1840 Western Europe (give or take), with the shapes and garment relationships and details of folk costume in early Norway, circa 19th century." This meant using primarily wool fabric with accents of velvet, linen and silk. During production, Giaimo and Gillmore "ran around" supplying various departments with real-world samples to use as references; they were able to draw upon both the studio's own in-house library of fabric samples as well as the resources of Disney Parks' costume division in Fullerton, California. The film's "look development artists" (the Disney job title for texture artists) created the digitally painted simulation of the appearance of surfaces, while other departments dealt with movement, rigging and weight, thickness and lighting of textile animation.
During production, the film's English title was changed from The Snow Queen to Frozen, a decision that drew comparisons to another Disney film, Tangled. Peter Del Vecho explained that "the title Frozen came up independently of the title Tangled. It's because, to us, it represents the movie. Frozen plays on the level of ice and snow but also the frozen relationship, the frozen heart that has to be thawed. We don't think of comparisons between Tangled and Frozen, though." He also mentioned that the film will still retain its original title, The Snow Queen, in some countries: "because that just resonated stronger in some countries than Frozen. Maybe there's a richness to The Snow Queen in the country's heritage and they just wanted to emphasize that."
Technology developmentThe studio also developed several new tools to generate realistic and believable shots, particularly the heavy and deep snow and its interactions with the characters. Disney wanted an "all-encompassing" and organic tool to provide snow effects but not require switching between different methods. As noted above, several Disney artists and special effects personnel traveled to Wyoming to experience walking through deep snow. Dr. Kenneth Libbrecht, a professor from the California Institute of Technology, was invited to give lectures to the effects group on how snow and ice form, and why snowflakes are unique. Using this knowledge, the effects group created a snowflake generator that allowed them to randomly create 2,000 unique snowflake shapes for the film.
Another challenge that the studio had to face was to deliver shots of heavy and deep snow that both interacted believably with characters and had a realistic sticky quality. According to principal software engineer Andrew Selle, "[Snow]'s not really a fluid. It’s not really a solid. It breaks apart. It can be compressed into snowballs. All of these different effects are very difficult to capture simultaneously." In order to achieve this, software engineers used advanced mathematics (the Material Point Method) and physics, with assistance from mathematics researchers at the University of California, Los Angeles to create a snow simulator software application called Matterhorn. The tool was capable of depicting realistic snow in a virtual environment and was used in at least 43 scenes in the film, including several key sequences. Software engineer Alexey Stomakhin referred to snow as "an important character in the film," therefore it attracted special attention from the filmmakers. "When you stretch it, snow will break into chunks. Since snow doesn't have any connections, it doesn't have a mesh, it can break very easily. So that was an important property we took advantage of," explained Selle. "There you see [Kristoff] walking through and see his footprints breaking the snow into little pieces and chunk up and you see [Anna] being pulled out and the snow having packed together and broken into pieces. It's very organic how that happens. You don't see that they're pieces already – you see the snow as one thing and then breaking up." The tool also proved to be particularly useful in scenes involving characters walking through deep snow, as it ensured that the snow reacted naturally to each step.
Other tools designed to help artists complete complicated effects included Spaces, which allowed Olaf's deconstructible parts to be moved around and rebuilt, Flourish, which aided extra movement such as leaves and twigs to be art-directed; Snow Batcher, which helped preview the final look of the snow, especially when characters were interacting with an area of snow by walking through a volume, and Tonic, which enabled artists to sculpt their characters' hair as procedural volumes. Tonic also aided in animating fur and hair elements such as Elsa's hair, which contains 420,000 computer-generated threads, while the average number for a real human being is only 100,000. The number of character rigs in Frozen is 312 and the number of simulated costumes also reached 245 cloth rigs, which were far beyond all other Disney films to date. Fifty effects artists and lighting artists worked together on the technology to create "one single shot" in which Elsa builds her ice palace. Its complexity required 30 hours to render each frame, with 4,000 computers rendering one frame at a time.
Besides 3D effects, the filmmakers also used 2D artworks and drawings for specific elements and sequences in the film, including Elsa's magic and snow sculptures, as well as freezing fountains and floors. The effects group created a "capture stage" where the entire world of Frozen gets displayed on monitors, which can be "filmed" on special cameras to operate a three-dimensional scene. "We can take this virtual set that's mimicking all of my actions and put it into any one of our scenes in the film," said technology manager Evan Goldberg.
The setting was principally based on Norway, and the cultural influences in the film come from Scandinavian culture. Several landmarks in Norway appear in the film, including the Akershus Fortress in Oslo, the Nidaros Cathedral in Trondheim, and Bryggen in Bergen. Numerous other typical cultural Scandinavian elements are also included in the film, such as stave churches, trolls, Viking ships, Fjord horses, clothes, and food such as lutefisk. A maypole is also present in the film, as well as the brief appearance of runes in a book that the King opens to figure out where the trolls live. The perennial Norwegian debate over how to stack firewood properly (bark up or bark down) is briefly shown in the film. The film also contains several elements specifically drawn from the Sámi culture, such as the usage of reindeer for transportation and the equipment used to control these, clothing styles (the outfits of the ice cutters), and parts of the musical score. Decorations, such as those on the castle pillars and Kristoff's sled, are also in styles inspired by Sámi duodji decorations. During their field work in Norway, Disney's team, for inspiration, visited Rørosrein, a Sámi family-owned company in the village Plassje that produces reindeer meat and arranges tourist events. Arendelle was inspired by Nærøyfjord, a branch of Norway's longest fjord Sognefjorden, which has been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site; while a castle in Oslo with beautiful hand-painted patterns on all four walls served as the inspiration for the kingdom's royal castle interior.
The filmmakers' trip to Norway provided essential knowledge for the animators to come up with the design aesthetic for the film in terms of color, light, and atmosphere. According to Giaimo, there were three important factors that they had acquired from this research trip: the fjords, which are the massive vertical rock formations, and serve as the setting for the secluded kingdom of Arendelle; the medieval stave churches, whose rustic triangular rooflines and shingles inspired the castle compound; and the rosemaling folk art, whose distinctive paneling and grid patterns informed the architecture, decor, and costumes.
Music and sound effects
- Main article: Frozen (Original Motion Picture Soundtrack)
The songs for Frozen were written and composed by the husband-and-wife songwriting team of Robert Lopez and Kristen Anderson-Lopez, both of whom had previously worked with Disney Animation on Winnie the Pooh (2011) (also produced by Del Vecho, who then hired them for Frozen) and before that, with Disney Parks on Finding Nemo: The Musical (2007). About 23 minutes of the film are dedicated to their musical numbers. Because they live in New York City, collaborating closely with the production team in Burbank required two-hour-long transcontinental videoconferences nearly every weekday for about 14 months. For each song they composed, they recorded a demo in their home studio (with both of them singing the lyrics and Lopez accompanying on piano), then emailed it to Burbank for discussion at the next videoconference. Lopez and Anderson-Lopez were aware of the fact that their work would be compared to that of Alan Menken and Howard Ashman from the Disney Renaissance era, and whenever they felt lost, they asked "What would Ashman do?" In the end, they wrote 25 songs for the film, of which eight made it into the final version. One song ("For the First Time in Forever") had a reprise and the other ("Let It Go") was covered by Demi Lovato over the final credits, for a total of ten songs. Seven of the 17 that did not make it were later released on the deluxe edition soundtrack.
In February 2013, Christophe Beck was hired to score the film, following his work on Paperman, a Disney animated short film released the year prior to Frozen. It was revealed on September 14, 2013, that Sámi musician Frode Fjellheim's Eatnemen Vuelie would be the film's opening song, as it contains elements of the traditional Sámi singing style joik. The music producers recruited a Norwegian linguist to assist with the lyrics for an Old Norse song written for Elsa's coronation, and also traveled to Trondheim, Norway to record the all-female choir Cantus, for a piece inspired by traditional Sámi music.
Under the supervision of sound engineer David Boucher, the lead cast members began recording the film's vocal tracks in October 2012 at the Sunset Sound recording studio in Hollywood before the songs had been orchestrated, meaning they heard only Lopez's demo piano track in their headphones as they sang. Most of the dialogue was recorded at the Roy E. Disney Animation Building in Burbank under the supervision of original dialogue mixer Gabriel Guy, who also mixed the film's sound effects. Some dialogue was recorded after recording songs at both Sunset Sound and Capitol Studios; for scenes involving Anna and Elsa, both studios offered vocal isolation booths where Menzel and Bell could read dialogue with line-of-sight with one another, while avoiding "bleedthrough" between their respective tracks. Additional dialogue was recorded at an ADR facility on the Walt Disney Studios lot in Burbank (across the street from the Disney Animation building) and at the Soundtrack Group's New York studio, since the production team had to work around the busy schedules of the film's New York-based cast members like Fontana.
Lopez and Anderson-Lopez's piano-vocal scores for the songs along with the vocal tracks were sent to Salem, Oregon-based Dave Metzger for arrangement and orchestration; Metzger also orchestrated a significant portion of Beck's score.
For the orchestral film score, Beck paid homage to the Norway- and Sápmi-inspired setting by employing regional instruments, such as the bukkehorn, and traditional vocal techniques, such as kulning. Beck worked with Lopez and Anderson-Lopez on incorporating their songs into arrangements in the score. The trio's goal "was to create a cohesive musical journey from beginning to end." Similarly, Beck's scoring mixer Casey Stone (who also supervised the recording of the score) worked with Boucher to align their microphone setups to ensure the transitions between the songs and score were seamless, even though they were separately recorded on different dates. The final orchestrations of both the songs and score were all recorded at the Eastwood Scoring Stage on the Warner Bros. studio lot in Burbank by an 80-piece orchestra, featuring 32 vocalists, including native Norwegian Christine Hals. Boucher supervised the recording of Anderson-Lopez and Lopez's songs from July 22 to 24, 2013, then Stone supervised the recording of Beck's score from September 3 to 6 and 9 to 10. Boucher mixed the songs at the Eastwood stage, while Stone mixed the score at Beck's personal studio in Santa Monica, California.
Regarding the sound of Frozen, director Jennifer Lee stated that sound played a huge part in making the film "visceral" and "transported"; she explained, "[i]n letting it tell the story emotionally, the sound of the ice when it's at its most dangerous just makes you shudder." The complete silence at the climax of the film right after Anna freezes was Lasseter's idea, one he "really wanted". In that scene, even the ambient sound that would normally be there was taken out in order to make it feel unusual. Lee explained "that was a moment where we wanted everything to feel suspended."
To obtain certain snow and ice sound effects, sound designer Odin Benitez traveled to Mammoth Mountain, California to record them at a frozen lake. However, the foley work for the film was recorded on the foley stage on the Warner Bros. lot by a Warner Bros. crew. The foley artists received daily deliveries of 50 pounds (22.6 kg) of snow ice while working, to help them record all the necessary snow and ice sounds for the film. For nearly every single footstep on snow in the film, five versions were recorded (corresponding to five different types of snow), then one was later selected to match the snow as rendered in the final version of each scene. One issue that the production team was "particular" about was the sound of Elsa's footsteps in the ice palace, which required eight attempts, including wine glasses on ice and metal knives on ice; they ended up using a mix of three sounds.
Although the vocals, music, sound effects and almost all the dialogue were all recorded elsewhere, the final re-recording mix to Dolby Atmos format was performed at the Disney lot by Casey E. Fluhr of Disney Digital Studio Services.
Like other Disney media products which are often localized through Disney Character Voices International, Frozen was translated and dubbed into 41 languages (compared with only 15 for The Lion King). A major challenge was to find sopranos capable of matching Menzel's warm vocal tone and three-octave vocal range in their native languages. Rick Dempsey, the unit's senior executive, regarded the process of translating the film as "exceptionally challenging"; he explained, "It's a difficult juggling act to get the right intent of the lyrics and also have it match rhythmically to the music. And then you have to go back and adjust for lip sync! [It]...requires a lot of patience and precision." Lopez explained that they were told by Disney to remove complex wordplay and puns from their songs, to ensure the film was easily translatable and had globally appealing lyrics. For the casting of dubbed versions, Disney required native speakers in order to "ensure that the film feels 'local'." They used Bell and Menzel's voices as their "blueprint" in casting, and tried to match the voices "as much as possible", meaning that they auditioned approximately 200 singers to fill the 41 slots for Elsa alone. For nearly 15 dubbed versions, they cast Elsa's singing and speaking parts separately, since not all vocalists could act the part they were singing. After casting all the other roles for all 41 languages, the international cast ended up including more than 900 people, who voiced their roles through approximately 1,300 recording sessions.
ReleaseFrozen was released theatrically in the United States on November 27, 2013, and it was accompanied by the new Mickey Mouse animated short film Get a Horse! The film's premiere was at the El Capitan Theatre in Hollywood, California on November 19, 2013, and had a five-day limited release there, starting from November 22, before going into wide release.
Prior to the film's release, Lopez and Anderson-Lopez's "Let It Go" and "In Summer" were previewed at the 2013 D23 Expo; Idina Menzel performed the former. A teaser trailer had been released on June 18, 2013, followed by the release of the official trailer on September 26, 2013. Frozen was also promoted heavily at several Disney theme parks including Disneyland's Fantasyland, Disney California Adventure's World of Color, Epcot's Norway pavilion, and Disneyland Paris' Disney Dreams! show; Disneyland and Epcot both offered meet-and-greet sessions involving the film's two main characters Anna and Elsa. On November 6, 2013, Disney Consumer Products began releasing a line of toys and other merchandise relating to the film in Disney Store and other retailers.
On January 31, 2014, a sing-along issue of Frozen was released in 2,057 theaters in the United States. This version featured on-screen lyrics, and viewers were invited to follow the bouncing snowflake and sing along with the songs from the film. After its wide release in Japan on March 14, 2014, a similar sing-along version of Frozen was released in the country in select theaters on April 26. In Japanese-dubbed versions, Japanese lyrics of the songs appeared on screen for audiences to sing along with the characters.
Frozen was released for digital download on February 25, 2014, on Google Play, iTunes and Amazon. It was subsequently released by Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment on Blu-ray Disc and DVD on March 18, 2014. Bonus features for the Blu-ray release include "The Making of Frozen", a three-minute musical production about how the film was made, "D'frosted", an inside look at how Disney tried to adapt the original fairy tale into an animated feature, four deleted scenes with introduction by the directors, the original theatrical short Get a Horse!, the film's teaser trailer, and "Let It Go" (End Credit Version) music videos by Demi Lovato, Martina Stoessel and Marsha Milan Londoh; while the DVD release only includes Get a Horse!, "Let It Go" musical videos and the film's teaser trailer. This is one of the three Disney releases on that day to be encoded. Beginning with The Pirate Fairy, the 32-year-old encoding deal has ended (from 1982-2014).
On its first day of release on Blu-ray and DVD, Frozen sold 3.2 million units, becoming one of the biggest home video sellers in the last decade, as well as Amazon's best-selling children's disc of all time. The digital download release of the film also set a record as the fastest-selling digital release of all time. Frozen finished its first week at No. 1 in unit sales in the United States, selling more than three times as many units as other 19 titles in the charts combined, according to the Nielsen's sales chart. The film sold 3,969,270 Blu-ray units (the equivalent of $79,266,322) during its first week, which accounted for 50 percent of its opening home media sales. It topped the U.S. home video sales charts for six non-consecutive weeks out of seven weeks of release, as of May 4, 2014. In the United Kingdom, Frozen debuted at No. 1 in Blu-ray and DVD sales on the Official Video Chart. According to Official Charts Company, more than 500,000 copies of the film were sold in its two-day opening (March 31 – April 1, 2014). During its three first weeks of release in the United Kingdom, Frozen sold more than 1.45 million units, becoming the biggest selling video title of 2014 so far in the country. Frozen has sold 2,025,000 Blu-ray Disc/DVD combo sets in Japan in 4 weeks, becoming the fastest-selling home video to sell 2 million copies, beating the previous record of 11 weeks by Spirited Away. Frozen also holds the records for highest number of home video units sold on the first official day of sales and in the first official week of sales in Japan.
A sing-along edition of the film was released on DVD and Digital HD on November 18, 2014. It was the first Walt Disney Animation Studios feature to not to be encoded.
A video game titled Frozen: Olaf's Quest was released on November 19, 2013, for Nintendo DS and Nintendo 3DS. Developed by 1st Playable Productions and published by GameMill Entertainment, it takes place after the events of the film. In the game, Olaf must use his unique snowman abilities to try and stay in one piece throughout 60 levels. Anna and Elsa were released as figurines in the Frozen toy box pack for the toy-based video game Disney Infinity on November 26, 2013, and both figures were released separately on March 11, 2014. Additionally, Disney Mobile released a match-three game titled Frozen: Free Fall for iOS, Android and Windows Phone platforms. It takes place in the kingdom of Arendelle and closely follows the original story of the film, in which players can team up with Anna, Elsa, Kristoff, Hans, Olaf, Pabbie and Sven to match puzzles with the help of each character's special power-ups. Six mini-games can be played on the Disney website. Sony released a limited-edition Frozen-themed PlayStation 4 console in Japan at the time the film was released into the Japanese home video market. Demi Lovato's cover of "Let It Go" appears as a purchasable song in Fantasia: Music Evolved.
Trademark infringement lawsuit
In late December 2013, The Walt Disney Company filed a trademark infringement lawsuit in California federal court seeking an injunction against the continued distribution of the French film The Legend of Sarila produced by 10th Ave Productions and CarpeDiem Film & TV and distributed by Phase 4 Films, which had been retitled Frozen Land. Disney alleged that less than three weeks prior to the release of Frozen, Phase 4 theatrically released The Legend of Sarila, which garnered "minimal box office revenues and received no significant attention"; and to trade off the success of the Disney's animated film, Phase 4 had "redesigned the artwork, packaging, logo, and other promotional materials for its newly (and intentionally misleadingly) retitled film to mimic those used by [Disney] for Frozen and related merchandise". While film titles cannot be trademarked by law, Disney had cited a number of similarities between the new Phase 4's Frozen logo and Disney's original one. By late January 2014, the two companies had settled the case; the settlement stated that the distribution and promotion of The Legend of Sarila and related merchandise must use its original title, and Phase 4 must not use trademarks, logos or other designs confusingly similar to Disney's animated release. Phase 4 was also required to pay Disney $100,000 before January 27, 2014 and make "all practicable efforts" to remove copies of Frozen Land from stores and online distributors before March 3, 2014.
- November 20, 2013 (Armenia, France, Georgia)
- November 27, 2013 (Canada, Philippines)
- November 28, 2013 (Germany, Macedonia, Israel, Croatia, Malaysia, Portugal, Singapore)
- November 29, 2013 (Bulgaria, Spain, Indonesia, Poland, India)
- December 4, 2013 (France, Belgium)
- December 5, 2013 (Hungary, Cambodia, Slovenia, Thailand)
- December 6, 2013 (UK, Ireland)
- December 7, 2013 (UAE)
- December 11, 2013 (Netherlands)
- December 12, 2013 (Russia)
- December 13, 2013 (Iceland, Vietnam)
- December 18, 2013 (Egypt)
- December 19, 2013 (Greece, Hong Kong SAR, Italy, Kuwait, Mexico, Ukraine)
- December 20, 2013 (Finland, Pakistan, South Africa)
- December 25, 2013 (Denmark, Norway)
- December 26, 2013 (Australia, New Zealand, Serbia)
- December 27, 2013 (Romania, Taiwan)
- January 2, 2014 (Argentina, Chile)
- January 3, 2014 (Brazil, Lithuania)
- January 16, 2014 (Spain, South Korea)
- January 17, 2014 (Estonia, Turkey)
- February 5, 2014 (China)
- February 14, 2014 (Bangladesh)
- March 14, 2014 (Japan)
- May 26, 2014 (Albania)
Frozen earned $400,738,009 in North America, and an estimated $880,064,273 in other countries, for a worldwide total of $1,280,802,282. It is the fifth highest-grossing film, the highest-grossing animated film, the highest-grossing 2013 film, the highest-grossing Walt Disney Pictures release, and the second highest-grossing film distributed by Disney. The film earned $110.6 million worldwide in its opening weekend. On March 2, 2014, its 101st day of release, it surpassed the $1 billion mark, becoming the eighteenth film in cinematic history, the seventh Disney-distributed film, the fifth non-sequel film, the second Disney-distributed film in 2013 (after Iron Man 3), and the second animated film (after Toy Story 3) to do so.
Bloomberg Businessweek magazine reported in March 2014 that outside analysts had projected the film's total cost at somewhere around $323 million to $350 million for production, marketing, and distribution, and had also projected that the film would generate $1.3 billion in revenue from box office ticket sales, digital downloads, discs and television rights.
Frozen became Fandango's top advance ticket seller among original animated films, ahead of previous record-holder Brave, and became the top-selling animated film in the company's history in late January 2014. The sing-along version of the film later topped the best-selling list of the movie ticketing service again for three days. Frozen opened on Friday, November 22, 2013, exclusively at the El Capitan Theatre in Hollywood for a five-day limited release and earned $342,839 before its wide opening on Wednesday, November 27, 2013. During the three-day weekend it earned $243,390, scoring the seventh largest per-theater average. On the opening day of its wide release, the film earned $15.2 million, including $1.2 million from Tuesday late-night shows, and set a record for the highest pre-Thanksgiving Wednesday opening, ahead of Tangled ($11.9 million). It was also the second largest pre-Thanksgiving Wednesday among all films, behind Catching Fire ($20.8 million). The film finished in second place over the traditional three-day weekend (Friday-to-Sunday) with $67.4 million, setting an opening weekend record among Walt Disney Animation Studios films. It also scored the second largest opening weekend among films that did not debut at #1. Female audiences accounted for 57% of Frozen's total audiences on the first weekend, while family audiences held a proportion of 81%. Among films that opened during Thanksgiving, it set new records; three-day ($67.4 million from Friday to Sunday) and five-day ($93.6 million from Wednesday to Sunday). It also achieved the second largest three-day and five-day Thanksgiving gross among all films, behind Catching Fire.
During its second weekend of wide release, Frozen declined 53% to $31.6 million, but jumped to first place, setting a record for the largest post-Thanksgiving weekend, ahead of Toy Story 2 ($27.8 million). Frozen became the first film since Avatar to reach first place in its sixth weekend of wide release. It remained in the top 10 at the box office for sixteen consecutive weekends (the longest run by any film since 2002) and achieved large weekend grosses from its fifth to its twelfth weekend (of wide release), compared to other films in their respective weekends. On April 25, 2014, Frozen became the nineteenth movie to gross $400 million in North America and the fifteenth to do so without a major re-release.
In North America, Frozen is the nineteenth highest-grossing film, the third highest-grossing 2013 film, the fourth highest-grossing animated film, the highest-grossing 2013 animated film, the fifth highest-grossing 3-D film, and the second highest-grossing Walt Disney Animation Studios film. Excluding re-releases, it has the highest-grossing initial run among non-sequel animated films (a record previously held by Finding Nemo) and among Walt Disney Animation Studios films (a record previously held by The Lion King).
Outside North America
Frozen is the fifth highest-grossing film, the highest-grossing animated film, and the highest-grossing 2013 film. It is the highest-grossing animated film in South Korea, Denmark and Venezuela. It is also the highest-grossing Walt Disney Animation Studios film in more than 45 territories, including the Latin America region (specifically in Mexico and Brazil), the UK, Ireland, and Malta, Russia and the CIS, Ukraine, Norway, Malaysia, Singapore, Australia and China.
The film made its debut outside North America on the same weekend as its wide North American release and earned $16.7 million from sixteen markets. It topped the box office outside North America for two weekends in 2014; January 10–12 ($27.8 million) and February 7–9 ($24 million). Overall, its largest opening weekends occurred in China (five-day opening of $14.3 million), Russia and the CIS ($11.9 million, including previews from previous weekend), where the film set an opening weekend record among Disney animated films (ahead of Tangled), and Japan (three-day opening of $9.73 million). It set an opening weekend record among animated films in Sweden. In total earnings, the film's top market after North America is Japan ($247.6 million), followed by South Korea ($76.6 million), and the United Kingdom, Ireland and Malta ($65.7 million). In South Korea, Frozen is the second largest foreign film both in terms of attendance and gross, the largest Disney release and the first animated film to earn more than ten million admissions. In Japan, it is the third highest-grossing film of all time, the second highest grossing imported film (behind Titanic) and the highest-grossing Disney film. It topped the country's box office for sixteen consecutive weekends until being surpassed by another Disney release, Maleficent.
Ray Subers, writing for Box Office Mojo, compared Frozen with Disney's 2010 animated feature Tangled, saying that its story wasn't as "immediately interesting" and its marketing also aimed at boys, similar to that of Tangled. Noting that the 2013 holiday season (Thanksgiving and Christmas) lacked compelling content for families, Subers predicted that the film would "play well all the way through Christmas" and end up grossing $185 million in North America (similar to Wreck-It Ralph). Boxoffice.com noted the success of previous Disney's animated films released during the holiday season (Tangled and Wreck-It Ralph), but argued that the cast might not attract audiences due to the lack of major stars. They issued a $170,000,000 North America box office forecast for the film. Chris Agar from ScreenRant shared the same opinion, citing a string of recent box office successes of the studio, and added that Frozen would fill a void of kid-friendly films in the marketplace, but did not expect it to surpass Catching Fire in terms of box office gross.
Clayton Dillard of Slant Magazine commented that while trailers made the film seem "pallid", positive critical reviews could attract interest from both "core demographics" and adult audiences, and that Frozen stood good chances of surpassing Tangled's Thanksgiving three-day opening record. Brad Brevet of Ropeofsilicon.com described the film's marketing as a "severely hit and miss" campaign, which could affect its box office performance. After Frozen finished its first weekend with a record $93.6 million during Thanksgiving, most box-office watchers predicted that it would end up grossing between $250 and $300 million in North America. Breitbart.com suggested that with "strong buzz" and "huge family audience support", Frozen would "easily break the $130 million" mark in North America. Box Office Mojo reissued a $250-million box office prediction in North America for the film, citing that it would be "the exclusive choice for family audiences" and attributed its successful opening to strong word-of-mouth, the studio's marketing, which highlighted the connection between Frozen and Disney's previous successful releases like Tangled and Wreck-It Ralph, as well as the elements of humor. In an interview conducted in early December 2013, Dave Hollis, Disney's distribution executive, praised the efforts of the filmmakers and the studio's marketing team: "For a company whose foundation is built on animation, an opening like this is really great." He further commented that audiences could be "very targeted with a message", and that Frozen aimed at general audience instead of any one particular audience segment.
When Frozen became a tremendous and unexpected success, Bilge Ebiri of Vulture analyzed the film's elements and pointed out eight factors that led to its success. He explained that Frozen managed to capture the classic Disney spirit of the Disney Renaissance's films and even early classics like Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs or Cinderella. He also wrote that the film has Olaf, a "wisecracking, irreverent" sidekick with mild humor which is "a requirement of modern animated kids' movies", and its "witty, catchy" songs were "pretty good." Furthermore, Ebiri noted that Frozen was a "revisionist" film that didn't "have a typical villain"; Elsa, the person who should be the villain didn't turn out to be a villain, but "a girl who's having trouble". She was the one who "[created] most of the challenges [for] the film's more typical heroes — Princess Anna". The story of two sisters who went separated when they grew up were real-life overtones with many audiences who had siblings, and the struggle of Elsa to overcome the shame and fear of her powers was also relatable. Finally, he commented that the fact that Frozen had two strong female characters and a twist to usual romantic subplot, when the traditional "Prince Charming" — Prince Hans — turned out to be a gold-digging villain, and "an act of true love" that Anna needed turned out to come from her sister Elsa, were among factors which attracted female audiences. Scott Davis of Forbes commented that the film's marketing aiming at both sexes and the success of its soundtrack drove Frozen ahead in terms of commercial achievements.
The commercial success of Frozen in Japan was considered as a "phenomenon" and was reported by a number of media outlets. Released in the market as Anna and the Snow Queen, the film had increased its gross each week in three first weeks of release, and only started to drop in the fourth; while other films usually peak in the opening week and decline in the latter ones. Frozen has received over 7 million admissions in Japan as of April 16, and nearly 18.7 million admissions as of June 23. Many cinemagoers were reported to have watched both the original and the Japanese-dubbed version. Japan Today also reported that the local dubbed version was "particularly popular" in the country. Gavin J. Blair of The Hollywood Reporter commented on the film's earnings in Japan that "Even after its $9.6 million (￥986.4 million) three-day opening, a record bow for a Disney animation in Japan, few would have predicted the kind of numbers Frozen has now racked up." Disney's head of distribution Dave Hollis said in an interview that "It's become very clear that the themes and emotions of ‘Frozen’ transcend geography, but what's going on in Japan is extraordinary."
"Frozen's success doesn't benefit from a general appetite for American films in Japan" (as reported by International Business Times), but according Akira Lippit of USC School of Cinematic Arts, there were several factors that constituted this phenomenon: besides the fact that animated films "are held in great regard in Japan, and the Disney brand name with all of its heritage is extremely valuable", "the biggest reason is the primary audience for the 'Frozen' — 13- to 17-year-old teenage girls." He further explained that audiences of this age range had a vital role in shaping Japanese pop culture and "'Frozen' has so many elements that appeal to them, with its story of a young girl with power and mystique, who finds her own sort of good in herself." He compared the current situation of the film with a similar phenomenon with Titanic in 1997, "when millions of Japanese teen girls turned out to watch Leonard DiCaprio go under — several times", and that Frozen would repeat the same business. Another reason that contributed to the film's success in the market was that Disney took great care in choosing "high quality" voice actors for the Japanese-dubbed version, since Japan's pop music scene had an important role particularly with teenage audiences. Orika Hiromura, marketing project leader for Frozen of Disney Japan, said in an interview with the Wall Street Journal that "We really put effort into finding actors who could not only play the role but also belt out the tunes as well. We found the perfect match in Takako Matsu and Sayaka Kanda, and they really added a whole new dimension to the storytelling."
When asked about the phenomenal success of Frozen, director Chris Buck stated: "We never expected anything like this. We just hoped to make a movie that did as well as Tangled! I hoped the audience would embrace it and respond to it, but there's no way we could have predicted this." He named a number of reasons that lead to the film's popularity: "There are characters that people relate to; the songs are so strong and memorable. We also have some flawed characters, which is what Jen[nifer Lee] and I like to do -- we essentially create two imperfect princesses." He also said that what people could infer from the film had "blow[n] me away." As Frozen approached the first anniversary of its release, Menzel mentioned the film's continuing popularity in an October 2014 interview: "It's just a remarkable thing. Usually you do a project and it has its moment. This just feels like it keeps going."
Frozen opened to strong early reviews, with several critics comparing the film favorably to the films of the Disney Renaissance, particularly The Little Mermaid, Beauty and the Beast, Aladdin and The Lion King. Indeed, some journalists thought the film's success marked a second Disney Renaissance. The film was praised for its visuals, themes, musical numbers, screenplay, and voice acting, especially of Kristen Bell, Idina Menzel and Josh Gad. The "Let It Go" musical sequence was repeatedly singled out for praise; some critics called it one of the best film sequences of the year. The review aggregation website Rotten Tomatoes reports that 89% of critics gave the film a positive review based on 189 reviews, with an average score of 7.7/10, making it the highest-rated family film in 2013. The site's consensus reads: "Beautifully animated, smartly written, and stocked with singalong songs, Frozen adds another worthy entry to the Disney canon." Metacritic, which assigns a normalized rating out of 100 top reviews from mainstream critics, calculated a score of 74 based on 43 reviews, indicating "generally favorable reviews." CinemaScore gave Frozen an "A+" on an A+ to F scale, based on polls conducted during the opening weekend. Surveys conducted by Fandango among 1,000 ticket buyers showed that 75% of purchasers had seen the film at least once, and 52% had seen it twice. It was also pointed out that 55% of audiences identified "Let It Go" as their favorite song, while "Do You Want to Build a Snowman?" and "For the First Time in Forever" held proportions of 21% and 9%, respectively. Frozen was named the seventh best film of 2013 by Richard Corliss of Time and Kyle Smith of the New York Post.
Alonso Duralde of The Wrap wrote that the film is "the best animated musical to come out of Disney since the tragic death of lyricist Howard Ashman, whose work on The Little Mermaid and Beauty and the Beast helped build the studio's modern animated division into what it is today." He also said that "while it lags the tiniest bit on its way to the conclusion, the script... really delivers; it offers characters to care about, along with some nifty twists and surprises along the way." Todd McCarthy of The Hollywood Reporter observed Frozen as a true musical and wrote, "You can practically see the Broadway musical Frozen is destined to become while watching Disney's 3D animated princess tale." McCarthy described the film as "energetic, humorous and not too cloying, as well as the first Hollywood film in many years to warn of global cooling rather than warming, this tuneful toon upgrades what has been a lackluster year for big studio animated fare and, beginning with its Thanksgiving opening, should live up to box office expectations as one of the studio's hoped-for holiday-spanning blockbusters." Kyle Smith of the New York Post awarded the film 3.5 out of 4 stars and praised the film as "a great big snowy pleasure with an emotionally gripping core, brilliant Broadway-style songs and a crafty plot. Its first and third acts are better than the jokey middle, but this is the rare example of a Walt Disney Animation Studios effort that reaches as deep as a Pixar film." Scott Mendelson of Forbes wrote, "Frozen is both a declaration of Disney's renewed cultural relevance and a reaffirmation of Disney coming to terms with its own legacy and its own identity. It's also a just plain terrific bit of family entertainment."
The Los Angeles Times extolled the film's ensemble voice talent and elaborate musical sequences, and declared Frozen as "a welcome return to greatness for Walt Disney Animation Studios." Entertainment Weekly's Owen Gleiberman gave the film a "B+" grade and labeled it as a "squarely enchanting fairy tale that shows you how the definition of what's fresh in animation can shift." Richard Corliss of Time stated that, "It's great to see Disney returning to its roots and blooming anew: creating superior musical entertainment that draws on the Walt tradition of animation splendor and the verve of Broadway present." Richard Roeper wrote that the film was an "absolute delight from start to finish." Both Michael Phillips of Chicago Tribune and Stephen Holden of The New York Times praised the film's characters and musical sequences, which also drew comparisons to the theatrics found in Wicked. Emma Dibdin of Digital Spy awarded the film five out of five stars and called the film "a new Disney classic" and "an exhilarating, joyous, human story that's as frequently laugh-out-loud funny as it is startling and daring and poignant. Hot on the heels of the 90th anniversary, it's impossible to imagine a more perfect celebration of everything Disney is at its best." Frozen was also praised in Norwegian Sámi media as showcasing Sámi culture (which historically has faced attempted eradication by the Norwegian state) to a broad audience in a good way. Composer Frode Fjellheim was lauded by Norwegian Sámi President Aili Keskitalo for his contributions to the film, during the President's 2014 New Year's speech.
Scott Foundas of Variety, was less impressed with the film, but nevertheless commended its voice acting and technical artistry: "The tactile, snow-capped Arendelle landscape, including Elsa's ice-castle retreat is Frozen's other true marvel, enhanced by 3D and the decision to shoot in widescreen – a nod to the CinemaScope richness of Sleeping Beauty and Lady and the Tramp." The Seattle Times gave the film two out of four stars, stating that "While it is an often gorgeous film with computer-generated fjords and ice sculptures and castle interiors, the important thing that glues all this stuff together – story – is sadly lacking." Joe Williams of the St. Louis Post-Dispatch also criticized the story as the film's weakest point. Writing on Roger Ebert's website, Christy Lemire gave a mixed review in which she awarded two-and-a-half stars out of four. Lemire praised the visuals and the performance of "Let It Go", as well as the positive messages Frozen sends. However, she referred to the film as "cynical" and criticized it as an "attempt to shake things up without shaking them up too much." She also noted the similarity between Elsa and another well-known fictional female who unleashes paranormal powers when agitated, Carrie.
In contrast to those lukewarm reviews, actress Mayim Bialik published a blunt critique of the film on her parenting blog on September 17, 2014. She contended that the film is essentially about male-bashing, but is actually not truly feminist because it is still driven by a woman's search for a man, while the female characters look like Bratz dolls and do not even "look like the same species as the male characters". The next day on U.S. daytime talk show The View (broadcast nationwide on Disney-owned TV network ABC), an indignant Rosie O'Donnell responded to Bialik by defending the film as "the best Disney movie ever made."
Portrayal of emotions and perceived LGBT parallels
Allegations of sexism occurred following a statement by Lino DiSalvo, the film's head of animation, who
|Award||Date of ceremony||Category||Recipient(s) and nominee(s)||Result||Ref.|
|Academy Awards||March 2, 2014||Best Animated Feature||Chris Buck, Jennifer Lee and Peter Del Vecho||Won|||
|Best Original Song||Kristen Anderson-Lopez and Robert Lopez for "Let It Go"|
|African-American Film Critics Association||December 13, 2013||Best Animated Feature||Frozen|||
|Alliance of Women Film Journalists||December 19, 2013||Best Animated Feature||Chris Buck and Jennifer Lee||Nominated|||
|Best Woman Director||Jennifer Lee|
|Best Woman Screenwriter|
|Best Animated Female||Anna (Kristen Bell)||Won|
|Elsa (Idina Menzel)||Nominated|
|American Cinema Editors||February 7, 2014||Best Edited Animated Feature Film||Jeff Draheim||Won|||
|Annie Awards||February 1, 2014||Best Animated Feature||Frozen|||
|Character Animation in an Animated Feature Production||Tony Smeed||Nominated|
|Character Design in an Animated Feature Production||Bill Schwab|
|Directing in an Animated Feature Production||Chris Buck, Jennifer Lee||Won|
|Music in an Animated Feature Production||Robert Lopez, Kristen Anderson-Lopez, Christophe Beck|
|Production Design in an Animated Feature Production||Michael Giaimo, Lisa Keene, David Womersley|
|Storyboarding in an Animated Feature Production||John Ripa||Nominated|
|Voice Acting in an Animated Feature Production||Josh Gad|
as the voice of Olaf
|Writing in an Animated Feature Production||Jennifer Lee||Nominated|
|Editorial in an Animated Feature Production||Jeff Draheim|
|Austin Film Critics Association||December 17, 2013||Best Animated Feature||Frozen||Won|||
|Boston Online Film Critics Association||December 7, 2013||Best Animated Feature||Frozen (tied with The Wind Rises)||Tied|||
|Boston Society of Film Critics||December 8, 2013||Best Animated Film||Frozen||Runner-up|||
|British Academy Film Awards||February 16, 2014||Best Animated Film||Chris Buck, Jennifer Lee||Won|||
|Chicago Film Critics Association||December 16, 2013||Best Animated Feature||Frozen||Nominated|||
|Cinema Audio Society Awards||February 22, 2014||Outstanding Achievement in Sound Mixing for Motion Pictures – Animated||Gabriel Guy, David E. Fluhr, Casey Stone, Mary Jo Lang||Won|||
|Critics' Choice Movie Awards||January 16, 2014||Best Animated Feature||Frozen|||
|Best Original Song||Kristen Anderson-Lopez and Robert Lopez for "Let It Go"|
|Dallas-Fort Worth Film Critics Association||December 16, 2013||Best Animated Feature||Frozen|||
|Denver Film Critics Society||January 13, 2014||Best Animated Feature||Frozen|||
|Best Original Song||Kristen Anderson-Lopez and Robert Lopez for "Let It Go"|
|Best Original Score||Christophe Beck||Nominated|
|Dorian Awards||January 21, 2014||Visually Striking Film of the Year||Frozen|||
|Dubai International Film Festival||December 13, 2013||Emirates NBD People's Choice Award||Chris Buck, Jennifer Lee||Won|||
|Florida Film Critics Circle||December 18, 2013||Best Animated Feature||Frozen|||
|Georgia Film Critics Association||January 10, 2014||Best Animated Film||Frozen|||
|Best Original Song||Kristen Anderson-Lopez and Robert Lopez for "Let It Go"||Nominated|
|Golden Globe Awards||January 12, 204||Best Animated Feature Film||Frozen||Won|||
|Best Original Song – Motion Picture||Kristen Anderson-Lopez and Robert Lopez for "Let It Go"||Nominated|
|Golden Tomato Awards||January 9, 2014||Best Animated Film||Frozen||Won|||
|Houston Film Critics Society||December 15, 2013||Best Animated Feature||Frozen|||
|Best Original Song||Kristen Anderson-Lopez and Robert Lopez for "Let It Go"||Nominated|
|Hugo Awards||August 17, 2014||Best Dramatic Presentation (Long Form)||Frozen||Nominated|||
|Indiana Film Critics Association||December 19, 2013||Best Animated Feature||Frozen||Won|||
|International 3D Society's Creative Arts Awards||January 28, 2014||Best Animated 3D Feature Film||Frozen|||
|Best Stereography – Animation||Frozen|
|Iowa Film Critics Association||January 10, 2014||Best Animated Feature||Frozen|||
|Kansas City Film Critics Circle||December 15, 2013||Best Animated Film||Frozen (tied with Despicable Me 2)||Tied|||
|Kids' Choice Awards||March 29, 2014||Favorite Animated Movie||Frozen||Won|||
|Las Vegas Film Critics Society||December 18, 2013||Best Animated Film||Frozen|||
|Made-in-Hollywood Awards||February 13, 2014||Made-in-Hollywood Award||Frozen (shared with The Croods and Her)|||
|Motion Picture Sound Editors||February 16, 2014||Best Sound Editing in an Animated Feature Film||Frozen||Nominated|||
|Best Sound Editing – Music in a Musical Feature Film||Frozen||Won|
|New York Film Critics Circle||December 3, 2013||Best Animated Feature||Frozen||Runner-up|||
|North Texas Film Critics Association||January 7, 2014||Best Animated Feature||Frozen||Won|||
|Oklahoma Film Critics Circle||January 7, 2014||Best Animated Feature||Frozen|||
|Online Film Critics Society||December 16, 2013||Best Animated Feature||Frozen||Nominated|||
|People's Choice Awards||January 8, 2014||Favorite Year End Movie||Frozen|||
|Phoenix Film Critics Society||December 17, 2013||Best Animated Feature||Frozen||Won|||
|Best Original Song||Kristen Anderson-Lopez and Robert Lopez for "Let It Go"|
|Best Original Score||Christophe Beck|
|Producers Guild of America Award||January 19, 2014||Outstanding Producer of Animated Theatrical Motion Pictures||Peter Del Vecho|||
|San Diego Film Critics Society||December 11, 2013||Best Animated Feature||Frozen||Nominated|||
|San Francisco Film Critics Circle||December 15, 2013||Best Animated Feature||Frozen||Won|||
|Satellite Awards||February 23, 2014||Best Motion Picture, Animated or Mixed Media||Frozen||Nominated|||
|Best Original Song||Kristen Anderson-Lopez and Robert Lopez for "Let It Go"|
|Saturn Awards||June 26, 2014||Best Animated Film||Frozen||Won|||
|Best Writing||Jennifer Lee||Nominated|
|Southeastern Film Critics Association||December 16, 2013||Best Animated Feature||Frozen||Won|||
|St. Louis Gateway Film Critics Association||December 16, 2013||Best Animated Film||Frozen|||
|Toronto Film Critics Association||December 17, 2013||Best Animated Feature||Frozen||Nominated|||
|UK Regional Critics' Film Awards||January 29, 2014||Best Animated Film||Frozen||Won|||
|Utah Film Critics Association||December 20, 2013||Best Animated Film||Frozen|||
|Visual Effects Society Awards||February 12, 2014||Outstanding Animation in an Animated Feature Motion Picture||Chris Buck, Jennifer Lee, Peter Del Vecho, Lino Di Salvo|||
|Outstanding Animated Character in an Animated Feature Motion Picture||Bringing the Snow Queen to Life (Alexander Alvarado, Joy Johnson, Chad Stubblefield, Wayne Unten)|
|Outstanding Created Environment in an Animated Feature Motion Picture||Elsa's Ice Palace (Virgilio John Aquino, Alessandro Jacomini, Lance Summers, David Womersley)|
|Outstanding FX and Simulation Animation in an Animated Feature Motion Picture||Elsa's Blizzard (Eric W. Araujo, Marc Bryant, Dong Joo Byun, Tim Molinder)|
|Washington D.C. Area Film Critics Association||December 9, 2013||Best Animated Feature||Frozen|||
|Best Score||Christophe Beck||Nominated|
|Women Film Critics Circle||December 16, 2013||Best Animated Females||Frozen||Won|||
- Frozen Disney | Official Site
- Frozen User Reviews on Votable
- FROZEN on Stage
- Frozen on Wikipedia
- Frozen on IMDb
- Frozen on Rotten Tomatoes
- Disney Frozen's Official Facebook
- Disney Frozen's Official Google+
- Disney Frozen's on Pinterest
- ↑ Box office preview: "Frozen" ready to storm the chart, but it won't beat "Catching Fire"
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 2.2 Frozen (2013)
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 3.2 Disney In Depth: The Future Of Disney Animation (Frozen, Paperman, & Wreck-It Ralph) – A Recap Of D23's Destination D Event. Geeks of Doom (August 16, 2012).
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 4.2 Disney's "Frozen": Kristen Bell and Idina Menzel to voice animated tale. Entertainment.com (June 11, 2012).
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 "Frozen" defrosts Kristen Bell's Disney dreams. USA today (June 17, 2013).
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 Jonathan Groff joins Disney's Frozen Voice Cast. Coming Soon (December 19, 2012).
- ↑ Oscar® Tour SoCal Day 2 Continues at Disney Feature Animation. Animation World Network (February 21, 2013).
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 8.2 Santino Fontana and Josh Gad Join Disney's Frozen, Starring Jonathan Groff & Idina Menzel. Broadway Buzz (June 18, 2013).
- ↑ Paul Briggs (November 30, 2013). @kimallyn - supporting voice in Horse. Marshmallow, one of the guys arguing bark up/bark down & maybe a troll that passed a kidney stone.. Twitter.
- ↑ 10.0 10.1 10.2 "Frozen" Review: Disney's Best Animated Musical Since "Beauty and the Beast". The Wrap (November 3, 2013).
- ↑ 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 11.7 Frozen's Final Shooting Draft. Walt Disney Studios Awards. Archived on April 1, 2014.
- ↑ Local Girl stars in Disney's "Frozen". Local News (December 10, 2013). Archived from the original on December 19, 2013.
- ↑ Frozen: Songwriters Kristen Anderson-Lopez & Robert Lopez Official Movie Interview. Youtube (October 31, 2013).
- ↑ 14.0 14.1 With Frozen, Director Jennifer Lee Breaks the Ice for Women Directors. Indiewire (November 26, 2013). Archived from the original on February 8, 2014.
- ↑ MOVIE REVIEW: Disney's animated 'Frozen' is pretty chill. The Gazette (November 29, 2013).
- ↑ 16.0 16.1 Frozen (2013) – Cast & Crew. Yahoo Movies. Archived from the original on July 19, 2013.
- ↑ Frozen (2013) & dash; Full Cast & Crew. IMDb.
- ↑ "Frozen" Movie Stills & dash; Oaken (voiced by Chris Williams). Yahoo Movies (July 10, 2013).
- ↑ 19.0 19.1 Frozen. BFI.
- ↑ How Well Do You Know... Frozen?. Disney Blogs (April 29, 2014).
- ↑ 21.0 21.1 21.2 Disney's "Frozen", Formerly "The Snow Queen", Will Be CG Rather Than Hand-Drawn. Slash Film (January 11, 2012).
- ↑ 22.00 22.01 22.02 22.03 22.04 22.05 22.06 22.07 22.08 22.09 22.10 22.11 22.12 22.13 22.14 22.15 22.16 22.17 Solomon, Charles (2013). The Art of Frozen. San Francisco: Chronicle Books. ISBN 978-1-4521-1716-4.
- ↑ 23.0 23.1 23.2 23.3 23.4 23.5 23.6 Countdown to Disney "Frozen" : How one simple suggestion broke the ice on the "Snow Queen"'s decades-long story problems. Jimhillmedia.com (October 18, 2013).
- ↑ 24.0 24.1 24.2 24.3 24.4 24.5 Inside The Research, Design, And Animation Of Walt Disney's Frozen With Producer Peter Del Vecho. Bleeding Cool (September 25, 2013).
- ↑ Issacson, Walter (2011). Steve Jobs (1st paperback ed.). New York: Simon and Schuster. pp. 435–436. ISBN 9781451648546.
- ↑ Catmull, Ed; Amy Wallace (2014). Creativity, Inc.: Overcoming the Unseen Forces That Stand in the Way of True Inspiration. New York: Random House. pp. 248–252. ISBN 978-0812993011.
- ↑ Price, David (2009). The Pixar Touch: The Making of a Company. Random House. pp. 252–254. ISBN 9780307278296.
- ↑ 28.0 28.1 28.2 28.3 28.4 Chris Buck reveals true inspiration behind Disney's Frozen (exclusive). Yahoo Movies (April 8, 2014). Archived from the original on July 15, 2014.
- ↑ Josh Gad Talks FROZEN, His History with the Project, the Songs, the Status of TRIPLETS, Playing Sam Kinison, and More. Collider (November 25, 2013).
- ↑ Interview: Frozen's Josh Gad. Canda msn Entertainment (November 27, 2013). Archived from the original on January 7, 2014.
- ↑ Disney restyles "Rapunzel" to appeal to boys. LA times (March 9, 2010).
- ↑ Exclusive: The Lion King To Go 3D. Empire Online (June 22, 2010). Archived from the original on October 21, 2013.
- ↑ Walt Disney Animation Gives "The Snow Queen" New Life, Retitled "Frozen" – But Will It Be Hand Drawn?. Slash Film (December 22, 2011).
- ↑ 34.0 34.1 34.2 34.3 34.4 34.5 34.6 Exploring the Songs of "Frozen" with Kristen Anderson-Lopez '94. Youtube (June 30, 2014).
- ↑ 35.0 35.1 Kristen Bell Set to Star in Stage Adaptation "Some Girls", Animated Feature "Frozen" (Exclusive). Hollywood Reporter (March 5, 2012).
- ↑ 36.0 36.1 36.2 36.3 Directors Chris Buck and Jennifer Lee Talk 'Frozen'. Animation World Network (November 7, 2013).
- ↑ 37.0 37.1 Oscars 2014: 'Frozen's' Jennifer Lee on being a female director. LA times (March 1, 2014).
- ↑ 38.0 38.1 38.2 38.3 38.4 38.5 38.6 Michael, Peter, Chris and Jennifer Talk Frozen and It's Success. Kidz World (March 17, 2014).
- ↑ 39.0 39.1 39.2 39.3 39.4 39.5 Unfreezing "Frozen": The making of the newest fairy tale in 3D by Disney. Pasadena-Star News (November 19, 2013).
- ↑ 40.0 40.1 40.2 40.3 40.4 How "Frozen" Director Jennifer Lee Reinvented The Story Of The Snow Queen. Fast Company (February 28, 2014).
- ↑ 41.00 41.01 41.02 41.03 41.04 41.05 41.06 41.07 41.08 41.09 41.10 41.11 41.12 41.13 41.14 41.15 41.16 41.17 41.18 Scriptnotes, Ep 128: Frozen with Jennifer Lee — Transcript. John August (February 1, 2014).
- ↑ A spoiler-y, slightly nerdy interview about Disney's Frozen. Den of Geek! (December 12, 2013).
- ↑ Frozen: inside Disney's billion-dollar social media hit. The Telegraph (March 31, 2014).
- ↑ Disney Film Boss Ousted by Warner Finds Vindication in Success. New York Times (November 9, 2014).
- ↑ 45.0 45.1 Is it her time to shine?. Newport Entertainment (February 17, 2014).
- ↑ 46.0 46.1 46.2 46.3 46.4 The Real-Life Ice Hotel That Inspired Disney’s ‘Frozen’. Cave Online (March 18, 2014). Archived from the original on April 7, 2014.
- ↑ 47.0 47.1 Kristen Bell: "Frozen" character is "awkward", "Veronica Mars" footage "looks radical"
- ↑ Low-key bride Kristen Bell
- ↑ 49.0 49.1 49.2 49.3 49.4 49.5 49.6 49.7 49.8 Cinema Audio Society Awards Brings Us Together Again: Motion Picture — Animated, Frozen
- ↑ Kristen Bell: "Frozen" Is "The Kind Of Movie I Wanted To See As A Kid"
- ↑ 51.0 51.1 51.2 Tangled - Secret Phone Recording Helped Idina Menzel Land New Disney Role
- ↑ Mania Interview: Idina Menzel
- ↑ Chris Buck and Jennifer Lee interview: on making Frozen
- ↑ Jennifer Lee to co-direct Disney Animated Film "Frozen"
- ↑ 55.0 55.1 55.2 55.3 Frozen Producer Heads to the Oscars
- ↑ Disney is reanimated with 'Frozen,' 'Big Hero 6'
- ↑ Frozen Composers Assess 6 Fan-Created Homages to Their Songs
- ↑ 58.0 58.1 On the Job With Jennifer Lee, Director of Frozen
- ↑ "Frozen" Review
- ↑ Grant, John (1998). Encyclopedia of Walt Disney's Animated Characters (3rd ed.). Hyperion Books. p. 400. ISBN 9780786863365
- ↑ 61.0 61.1 61.2 61.3 61.4 61.5 61.6 61.7 61.8 Frozen: Setting and Visual Look
- ↑ 62.0 62.1 62.2 The story behind the story of Frozen
- ↑ 63.0 63.1 63.2 Oscar Week: Frozen’s Art of Animation
- ↑ 64.0 64.1 64.2 Snowed Under: Chris Buck talks about Frozen
- ↑ 65.0 65.1 Disney Present Footage from Their Forthcoming Picture Frozen – Report
- ↑ UNH degree played a part in Oscar-winning movie
- ↑ 67.0 67.1 67.2 67.3 Immersed in Movies: First Look: Designing the Winter Wonderland of "Frozen"
- ↑ 68.0 68.1 68.2 68.3 21 "Frozen" Facts That Make Us Ready for Winter
- ↑ 69.0 69.1 Animators bask in glow of 'Frozen's' box-office and Oscar success
- ↑ Jennifer Lee: Disney's New Animation Queen
- ↑ The Animation of Disney's 'Frozen': Striving to Capture the Performance
- ↑ Disney’s FROZEN Press Day at Walt Disney Animation Studios #DisneyFrozen #DisneyFrozenEvent
- ↑ 7 Things You Didn't Know About 'Frozen'
- ↑ 74.0 74.1 74.2 74.3 74.4 Costume Design in Animation - Disney's Frozen
- ↑ Hahn, Don (2008). The Alchemy of Animation: Making an Animated Film in the Modern Age. New York: Disney Editions. ISBN 9781423104766
- ↑ 76.0 76.1 76.2 76.3 76.4 76.5 The tech of Disney's Frozen and Get a Horse!
- ↑ 77.0 77.1 77.2 UCLA's mathematicians bring snow to life for Disney's "Frozen"
- ↑ A material point method for snow simulation
- ↑ 79.0 79.1 Making of Disney's Frozen: A Material Point Method For Snow Simulation
- ↑ Disney's "Frozen" to Warm Hearts This Week
- ↑ Countdown to Disney "Frozen" : The flaky design idea behind the look of Elsa's ice palace
- ↑ 82.0 82.1 6 surprises I learned about "Frozen" fresh from filmmakers at Walt Disney Animation Studios preview event
- ↑ Disney's Frozen Movie and Sitron the Fjord Horse
- ↑ Female Directors are Changing the Story in Disney Animation
- ↑ Bark Up or Down? Firewood Splits Norwegians
- ↑ Nidarosdomen i ny Disney-film (in Norwegian)
- ↑ Vi ligner mest med lua på (in Norwegian)
- ↑ Se, en samisk Disney-helt! (in Norwegian)
- ↑ Disney's Frozen: Inspired by Norway's beauty
- ↑ Evil Elsa, shy Kristoff? 10 "Frozen" facts you probably didn't know
- ↑ Husband-wife songwriting team's emotions flow in "Frozen"
- ↑ 92.0 92.1 92.2 Frozen composers Robert Lopez and Kristen Anderson-Lopez
- ↑ The Scrambled Sexuality of 'Frozen's "Let It Go"
- ↑ Disney's Frozen Wins Academy Award for Animated Feature
- ↑ Awards Spotlight: 'Frozen' Director Chris Buck on Crafting Well-Rounded Female Characters
- ↑ Awards Spotlight: Robert Lopez & Kristen Anderson-Lopez Make Beautiful Music Together for Disney’s ‘Frozen’
- ↑ 97.0 97.1 97.2 ‘Frozen’ Aims for Watermark notched by ‘Mermaid,’ ‘Beauty & Beast’
- ↑ Christophe Beck to Score Disney's "Frozen"
- ↑ Trøndersk yoiking opens Disney movie
- ↑ 100.0 100.1 100.2 100.3 100.4 Walt Disney Animation Studios' "Frozen" Lets Go With Dynamic Soundtrack
- ↑ 101.0 101.1 101.2 101.3 101.4 Inside Track: Disney's Frozen
- ↑ Cinderella Star Santino Fontana Gets Frozen for Disney — and His Own Action Figure
- ↑ Disney's 'Frozen': A behind-the-scenes look at the movie's music that gets its magic from an Oregon man
- ↑ 104.0 104.1 104.2 CAS Launches 'Gravity' into Oscar's Orbit
- ↑ 105.0 105.1 105.2 105.3 Jennifer Lee & Chris Buck interview: Frozen, Statham, Frozen 2
- ↑ 106.0 106.1 'Frozen': Finding a diva in 41 languages
- ↑ 'Let It Go': A Global Hit In Any Language
- ↑ 108.0 108.1 108.2 108.3 How These Singers Around the Globe Pushed 'Frozen' Over the Top
- ↑ 'Frozen' Composer Robert Lopez on the Perils of Translating 'Let It Go'
- ↑ Disney’s global success with ‘Frozen’ took lots of translation, investment
- ↑ D23 Expo: Mickey Mouse Short "Get A Horse" Debuts; Will Open With "Frozen"
- ↑ Disney's "Frozen" Premiere Warms Up Audience in Hollywood
- ↑ Disney's Frozen to Open Five Days Early at the El Capitan Theatre
- ↑ Disney's "Frozen" Glides Into El Capitan for Exclusive Early Release
- ↑ D23 Expo: Disney Fanfest Starts Off Strong with Animation Lineup
- ↑ "Frozen" teaser trailer: Disney releases first look at new animated film
- ↑ The Teaser Trailer for Disney's Frozen
- ↑ Disney's Frozen Official Trailer
- ↑ Walt Disney's Frozen – Official Trailer
- ↑ Disney's Frozen Official Trailer
- ↑ Disneyland Resort Debuts "World of Color - Winter Dreams," a Merry New Spectacular for 2013 Holiday Season
- ↑ "Frozen" characters set to visit Epcot's Norway, be seen in Magic Kingdom show
- ↑ Anna and Elsa joined by animated Olaf for "Frozen" character meet-and-greet in Royal Reception at Disneyland
- ↑ "Frozen" characters draw unprecedented lines at Disneyland
- ↑ Press release: Disney Celebrates Family Bonds and Epic Storytelling in New Frozen Product Collection Available at Retail Now
- ↑ Sing-along "Frozen" coming to theaters
- ↑ Cinemark – Frozen Sing-a-long
- ↑ 128.0 128.1 128.2 128.3 Box Office: "Frozen" Sing-Along Hits High Note in Friday Matinee Sales
- ↑ 129.0 129.1 Q&A: Disney Executive Tells of ‘Frozen’ Success in Japan
- ↑ "Frozen" now available for digital download – win a copy!
- ↑ New releases: Disney's Oscar-winning heartwarmer 'Frozen'
- ↑ 132.0 132.1 Blu-ray, DVD and Digital HD | Frozen | Disney Movies
- ↑ 'Frozen' DVD/Blu-ray release date, special features announced
- ↑ Kristen Bell, Jonathan Groff, and Josh Gad sing about the making of 'Frozen' in epic new song
- ↑ Frozen Blu-ray
- ↑ Frozen (Two-Disc Blu-ray / DVD + Digital Copy) (2013)
- ↑ ‘Frozen’ Sells Massive 3.2 Million Discs in One Day
- ↑ 'Frozen' Sells 3.2 Million Blu-ray, DVD Units in First Day
- ↑ 'Frozen' Makes Huge Debut on Disc
- ↑ 140.0 140.1 'Frozen' Easily Tops Home Video Sales Charts
- ↑ Blu-ray Weekly Sales Chart - The Numbers
- ↑ 'Frozen' Barely Beats 'Legend of Hercules' to Stay on Top of Home Video Sales Charts
- ↑ The Desolation Of Smaug knocks Frozen off Number 1
- ↑ Disney's Frozen smashes though half-a-million DVD and Blu-ray sales
- ↑ Frozen reclaims Official Video Chart top spot
- ↑ Frozen Home Video Tops Spirited Away as Fastest to Sell 2 Million Copies in Japan
- ↑ Disney’s ‘Frozen: Sing-Along’ Edition on DVD in November with All New Bonus Feature
- ↑ 148.0 148.1 GameMill Publishing's "Disney Frozen: Olaf's Quest" is Available Today for Nintendo DS and Nintendo 3DS
- ↑ GameMill Publishing Announces Video Game Companion to Walt Disney Animation Studios Film "Frozen" For Nintendo 3DS™ and Nintendo DS™
- ↑ Disney Infinity to add Wreck-It Ralph, Tangled, Frozen characters
- ↑ Frozen, Rapunzel, Wreck-It Ralph hit Disney Infinity this holiday
- ↑ Disney Infinity Figure (Elsa) – PlayStation 3, Xbox 360, Nintendo Wii, Wii U, 3DS
- ↑ Disney Infinity Figure (Anna) – PlayStation 3, Xbox 360, Nintendo Wii, Wii U, 3DS
- ↑ Frozen Free Fall – Disney Games
- ↑ Frozen Free Fall Walkthrough, Cheats and Strategy Guide
- ↑ Frozen (2013): Games & Apps
- ↑ 'Frozen'-themed PlayStation 4 hits next week...in Japan
- ↑ Fantasia: Music Evolved for Xbox One and 360 will 'Let it Go' to those who preorder
- ↑ Disney Fantasia: Music Evolved gets three pre-order bonus tracks
- ↑ Disney Files Trademark Lawsuit Over “Frozen Land”
- ↑ Disney Files Trademark Lawsuit Over 'Frozen Land' Film
- ↑ Disney Acts To Freeze Out Competition
- ↑ 163.0 163.1 163.2 Walt Disney Settles Trademark Lawsuit over “Frozen”
- ↑ 164.0 164.1 Disney Lawsuit Ices 'Frozen Land' Movie
- ↑ Phase 4 Films settles Frozen Land lawsuit with Disney
- ↑ All Time Worldwide Box Office Results
- ↑ Box Office Milestone: 'Frozen' Becomes No. 1 Animated Film of All Time
- ↑ 168.0 168.1 168.2 GLOBAL: 'Captain America' Takes $75.2M Debut Ahead of North American Release; 'Noah' on the Verge of Hitting $100M; 'Frozen' is the Top Animated Film of All Time; 'Rio 2' Takes Record Breaking Brazilian Debut to Climb to $29.7M
- ↑ 2013 Yearly Box Office Results - Box Office Mojo
- ↑ "Frozen" hits $1 billion mark at worldwide box office
- ↑ All Time Worldwide Opening Records
- ↑ Weekend Report: Neeson Beats Jesus, "Frozen" Hits $1 Billion
- ↑ Box Office Milestone: "Frozen" Crosses $1 Billion Worldwide
- ↑ Disney’s ‘Frozen’ Passing $1 Billion Cements Rebound
- ↑ "Catching Fire" and "Frozen" Heat Up Fandango's Fanticipation with Brisk Advance Ticket Sales for Thanksgiving Weekend
- ↑ Weekend Report: "Catching Fire" Burns Bright, Sets November Record
- ↑ TOP WEEKEND THEATER AVERAGES
- ↑ Frozen (2013) – Daily Box Office Results
- ↑ Box Office: 'Interstellar,' 'Big Hero 6' Blast Off to Big Thursday Night Numbers
- ↑ "Catching Fire", "Frozen" Chase Thanksgiving Box Office Records
- ↑ "Frozen" Smashes Disney Animation Opening Weekend Records
- ↑ Biggest Opening Weekends That Did Not Debut at #1.
- ↑ 183.0 183.1 183.2 183.3 Weekend Report: "Catching Fire", "Frozen" Set Thanksgiving Records
- ↑ 184.0 184.1 184.2 184.3 Thanksgiving Box Office: "Catching Fire," "Frozen" Serve Up Holiday Records
- ↑ Biggest 3-day Thanksgiving Openings at the Box Office
- ↑ Biggest 5-day Thanksgiving Openings at the Box Office
- ↑ Biggest 3-day Thanksgiving Weekends at the Box Office
- ↑ Biggest 5-day Thanksgiving Weekends at the Box Office
- ↑ NORTH AMERICA: Studio Weekend Estimates: "The Hunger Games: Catching Fire" Sets New Five-Day Thanksgiving Weekend Record With $110.2M; "Frozen" Ices Expectations With $93.0M Five-Day Start
- ↑ Weekend Report: "Frozen" Beats "Fire," "Furnace" Melts
- ↑ Weekend Report: "Frozen" Chills "Paranormal" Spin-Off This Weekend
- ↑ Disney's 'Frozen' and Marvel's 'Captain America: The Winter Soldier' Heat Up Box Offices Around the World
- ↑ Frozen (2013) – Weekend Box Office Results – Box Office Mojo
- ↑ Weekend Report: "Hobbit," "Frozen" Top "Wolf," "Mitty" on Final Weekend of 2013
- ↑ Top Grossing Movies in their 5th to 12th Weekends at the Box Office:
- Top Grossing Movies in Their 5th Weekend at the Box Office
- Top Grossing Movies in Their 6th Weekend at the Box Office
- Top Grossing Movies in Their 7th Weekend at the Box Office
- Top Grossing Movies in Their 8th Weekend at the Box Office
- Top Grossing Movies in Their 9th Weekend at the Box Office
- Top Grossing Movies in Their 10th Weekend at the Box Office
- Top Grossing Movies in Their 11th Weekend at the Box Office
- Top Grossing Movies in Their 12th Weekend at the Box Office
- ↑ Friday Report: 'Other Woman' On Pace for $25 Million Debut
- ↑ All Time Domestic Box Office Results
- ↑ 2013 Domestic Grosses, 2013 Yearly Box Office Results – Box Office Mojo
- ↑ Animation Movies at the Box Office
- ↑ 3D Movies at the Box Office
- ↑ Walt Disney Animation Studios Movies at the Box Office
- ↑ Weekend Report: "Ride Along" Runs Over "I, Frankenstein"
- ↑ 203.0 203.1 Frozen leads int'l BO on $24m
- ↑ A Charmed Life for Disney's 'Frozen'
- ↑ 205.0 205.1 All Time Worldwide Box Office Results (Sorted by overseas grosses)
- ↑ Box Office: 'Heaven Is for Real' Crushes Johnny Depp's Latest Bomb 'Transcendence'
- ↑ 2013 Yearly Box Office Results
- ↑ "Frozen" Crosses $75 Million in South Korea, Breaks Local Records
- ↑ Weekend Report: "Ride Along" Avoids "Awkward Moment," Three-peats Over Super Bowl Weekend
- ↑ 2013 Venezuela Yearly Box Office
- ↑ Hobbit 2 soars past $500m int'l
- ↑ 12, 2014 UPDATED GLOBAL: "Frozen" Breaks "Hobbit" Streak, Crosses $700M; Big China Debut For "Despicable Me 2"; "12 Years A Slave" #1 In The UK
- ↑ GLOBAL: "Frozen" Breaks $800M; "I, Frankenstein" Opens Strong In Russia
- ↑ Weekend Report: Everything Is Awesome For "The LEGO Movie"
- ↑ Weekend Report: Audiences Flock to "Lone Survivor," Avoid "Hercules," "Her"
- ↑ Weekend Report: Everything Is Awesome For "The LEGO Movie"
- ↑ Weekly box office
- ↑ RUSSIA: "Frozen" Off To A Hot Start
- ↑ 'Frozen' Sets Disney Opening Weekend Record in Japan
- ↑ Frozen (2013) – International Box Office Results
- ↑ GLOBAL: "Frozen" Continues To Dominate, Passes $500M Overseas
- ↑ 222.0 222.1 Japanese Box Office Reports:
- GLOBAL: 'The Amazing Spider-Man 2' Swings to $369M After North American Debut; 'Rio 2' Closes in on $400M; 'Divergent' Reaches $250M Mark
- Intl Box Office: 'Amazing Spider-Man 2' Snares $54M In 1st China Week; 'Neighbors' Parties With $33.7M Open; 'Rio 2' Flies Past $300M; Auds Faithful To 'The Other Woman'; 'Spanish Affairs' Sets New Record; More
- 'Frozen' Tops Japanese Box Office for 10th Consecutive Weekend
- GLOBAL: 'X-Men: Days of Future Past' Breaks 'Avatar' Record as Fox International's Biggest Overseas Debut of All Time
- GLOBAL: 'Maleficent' Edges Out X-Men for Box Office Crown with $100.6M Day-and-Date Debut Overseas
- GLOBAL: 'Edge of Tomorrow' Leads the Overseas Box Office, Reaches $140.1M Global Cume Following North American Release
- GLOBAL: 'Godzilla' Takes Over China, Crosses $400M Worldwide
- GLOBAL: Strong Brazil Bow Sends 'How to Train Your Dragon 2' to $43.5 Million Overseas Weekend; 'Maleficent' Takes $20.3 Million in China
- 'Transformers: Age of Extinction' Crushes the Competition with $301.3M Global Bow
- ↑ Frozen (2013) – International Box Office Results
- ↑ South Korea Box Office: "Frozen" Becomes Second Most Watched Foreign Film
- ↑ "Frozen" Crosses $75 Million in South Korea, Breaks Local Records
- ↑ ‘Frozen’ Riding ‘Perfect Storm’ to $200 Million at Japan Box Office
- ↑ ‘Frozen’ Gives Up Top Spot in Japan to 'Maleficent' After 16 Consecutive Frames
- ↑ Holiday 2013 Forecast
- ↑ Long Range Forecast: 'Black Nativity', 'Frozen', 'Homefront', & 'Oldboy'
- ↑ Box Office Prediction: ‘Frozen’ vs. ‘The Hunger Games: Catching Fire’
- ↑ Box Office Rap: Frozen and the Frost-y Showdown
- ↑ Box Office Predictions: 'Hunger Games: Catching Fire' to Top 'Frozen' for Second Weekend Win
- ↑ 233.0 233.1 233.2 233.3 233.4 233.5 The Eight Reasons Frozen Is Unstoppable
- ↑ Box Office Predictions: 'Frozen,' 'Hunger Games' Re-Team for Blockbuster Tix Sales
- ↑ What Marketers Should Learn From Disney's 'Frozen'
- ↑ 236.0 236.1 236.2 'Frozen' tops box office in Japan for 5th consecutive week
- ↑ 237.0 237.1 Japan Box Office: 'Frozen' Edges Toward $200 Million, Enters All-Time Top 5
- ↑ Frozen Remains Top Of Japanese Box Office
- ↑ 239.0 239.1 Japan Box Office: 'Frozen' Tops For 15th Week, '300' Bows in 5th
- ↑ 240.0 240.1 240.2 240.3 240.4 ‘Frozen’ Riding ‘Perfect Storm’ to $200 Million at Japan Box Office
- ↑ ‘Frozen’ Riding ‘Perfect Storm’ to $200 Million at Japan Box Office
- ↑ 242.0 242.1 'Frozen' On Track To Become Japan's Second Biggest Movie Ever Next Week
- ↑ Cite error: Invalid
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- ↑ Is "Frozen" a New, Bona Fide Disney Classic?
- ↑ 245.0 245.1 Review: "Frozen" an icy blast of fun from the first snowflake
- ↑ 246.0 246.1 Movie Review : Frozen (2013)
- ↑ "Frozen" is the Best Disney Film Since "The Lion King"
- ↑ ‘Frozen’ makes history two times over on Oscar weekend
- ↑ A Charmed Life for Disney's 'Frozen'
- ↑ Splendid Sights, Musical Might Melt "Frozen"
- ↑ "Frozen" mixes music and animation to create a soaring holiday delight
- ↑ 17 Best Movie Moments Of 2013
- ↑ Best Movie Moments of 2013 Included Scenes from Iron Man 3, Gravity, Fast & Furious 6, and More
- ↑ Frozen (2013)
- ↑ Frozen
- ↑ Box Office: "Frozen" Opens to Stellar $15.2 Million Wednesday; "Catching Fire" Still No. 1
- ↑ Top 10 Best Movies
- ↑ Kyle Smith and Lou Lumenick's Top 10 lists
- ↑ Frozen: Film Review
- ↑ Disney's "Frozen" will melt your heart
- ↑ "Frozen" Is Disney's Triumphant Reaffirmation Of Its Cultural Legacy
- ↑ Frozen: This Disney Princess Movie Is Thaw-some
- ↑ Richard Roeper & the Movies: "Frozen" Review
- ↑ 'Frozen': Defying meteorology
- ↑ From the Heat of Royal Passion, Poof! It's Permafrost
- ↑ "Frozen" review: Heartfelt fairytale musical is a new Disney classic
- ↑ Sámi thing: President's New Year speech (in Norwegian)
- ↑ Frode pushed down Beyoncé (in Norwegian)
- ↑ Film Review: "Frozen"
- ↑ "Frozen": Visuals are solid, but narrative is on thin ice
- ↑ "Frozen" is pretty but pointless
- ↑ 272.0 272.1 272.2 272.3 "Frozen"
- ↑ 273.0 273.1 Mayim Bialik reveals why she hates Disney's "Frozen"
- ↑ Rosie O'Donnell Blasts Mayim Bialik's Frozen Criticism, References Elisabeth Hasselbeck Feud
- ↑ Oscars 2014: The complete list of nominees and winners
- ↑ 86th Academy Awards Nominations: Complete List and Scorecard
- ↑ African American film critics name '12 Years a Slave' best film
- ↑ 2013 EDA Award Nominees
- ↑ 2013 EDA Award Winners
- ↑ Film Editors Unveil ACE Eddie Award Nominations
- ↑ 64th Annual ACE Eddie Awards: ‘Captain Phillips’ Wins Drama Feature Prize; ‘American Hustle’ Top Comedy; ‘Frozen’ Wins Animation Trophy; ‘Breaking Bad’ & ‘The Office’ Take Top TV Prizes
- ↑ Annie Awards 2014: Complete list of winners and nominees
- ↑ "Frozen" wins Annie Award for best animated film, several others
- ↑ 2013 Awards
- ↑ 2013 Boston Online Film Critics Association winners
- ↑ 2013 Boston Society of Film Critics winners
- ↑ Bafta Film Awards 2014: Full list of winners
- ↑ 2013 Chicago Film Critics Association Nominations
- ↑ Cinema Audio Society Awards: 'Gravity', 'Frozen' Take Film Honors
- ↑ Critics' Choice Awards: The Winners
- ↑ 2013 Dallas–Fort Worth Film Critics Association winners
- ↑ 2013 Denver Film Critics Society Nominations
- ↑ 2013 Denver Film Critics Society winners
- ↑ GALECA 2013 nominees
- ↑ DIFF's Landmark Tenth Edition Honors Industry's Best at Awards Ceremony
- ↑ 2013 FFCC Award Winners
- ↑ 2013 Georgia Film Critics Association Nominations
- ↑ 2013 Georgia Film Critics Association Awards: '12 Years a Slave' takes a trio of acting awards
- ↑ Golden Globes Nominations: The Full List
- ↑ Golden Globe Awards Winners
- ↑ Golden Tomatoes Awards 2013
- ↑ 2013 Houston Film Critics Society nominations
- ↑ 2013 Houston Film Critics Society winners
- ↑ 2014 Hugo Awards
- ↑ Ann Leckie's debut novel wins Hugo science fiction award
- ↑ 2013 Indiana Film Critics Association
- ↑ ‘Gravity,’ ‘Frozen’ Win Big at Intl. 3D Society Awards
- ↑ 2013 Iowa Film Critics Association winners
- ↑ 2013 Kansas Film Critics winners
- ↑ Nickelodeon's Kids' Choice Awards: The Winners
- ↑ 2013 Las Vegas Film Critics' Society Award winners
- ↑ 'Her,' 'Croods,' 'Frozen' to be Honored With Made-in-Hollywood Awards
- ↑ Sound Editors Unveil Film Nominees For Golden Reel Awards
- ↑ 2014 MPSE Golden Reel Awards winners
- ↑ '12 Years a Slave' came this close to winning New York Film Critics Circle
- ↑ North Texas Film Critics declare Gravity best film of 2013
- ↑ Oklahoma Film Critics Circle names "Her" best film of the year
- ↑ The Online Film Critics Society Announces 17th Annual Awards
- ↑ People's Choice Awards 2014 Nominees
- ↑ Phoenix Film Critics Society 2013 Awards
- ↑ 25th Annual PGA Awards: First-Ever Tie For Best Motion Picture — ‘Gravity’ And ‘12 Years A Slave’; ‘Breaking Bad’ & ‘Modern Family’ Take Top TV Awards; Winners List
- ↑ 2013 San Diego Film Critics Society winners
- ↑ 2013 San Francisco Film Critics Circle winners
- ↑ Satellite Awards: '12 Years a Slave' Leads Film Nominees
- ↑ ‘Gravity,’ ‘The Hobbit: The Desolation of Smaug’ Lead Saturn Awards Noms
- ↑ 'Gravity,' 'Iron Man 3,' 'Breaking Bad' and 'The Walking Dead' lead 2014 Saturn Award winners
- ↑ 2013 Southeastern Film Critics Association winners
- ↑ 2013 St. Louis Gateway Film Critics Association winners
- ↑ Toronto film critics name Coen brothers movie the best of 2013
- ↑ '12 Years a Slave' tops UK Regional Critics' vote
- ↑ Slave, Gravity win at Regional Critics Awards
- ↑ 2013 Utah Film Critics Association winners
- ↑ VES Awards: ‘Gravity’ Wins 6 Including Top Prize; ‘Frozen’ Goes 4-For-4; 3 Nods For ‘Game Of Thrones’
- ↑ 2013 Washington D.C. Area Film Critics Association nominations
- ↑ 2013 Washington D.C. Area Film Critics Association winners
- ↑ 2013 Women Film Critics Circle winners
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